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3 tips for sounding like a native speaker
"That'll be 66 cents please." "Sikysi... what?" Having a hard time understanding native speed English? This lesson will give you some tips on how to sound like a native speaker as well as how to understand what you hear by breaking down expressions into their individual word and sounds. https://www.engvid.com/3-tips-for-sounding-like-a-native-speaker/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again, welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today, I'm going to help you sound a little bit more like a native speaker, hopefully. Students ask me all the time: "How can I sound like a native speaker?" Well, before I say anything, let me just tell you that it will take time and a lot, a lot, a lot of practice. The best way is to live in an English-speaking country, of course, but of course you can do it anywhere, but it takes time; be patient, practice, practice, practice. So we're looking at pronunciation. Let me start with this word: "pronunciation". Not: "pronounciation". It is not a pronoun. A pronoun is: "I", "me", "my", "mine". Pronunciation is how we speak English. So I'm going to give you three tips that will help you sound a little bit more like a native speaker. We're going to start with connecting words. Now, think about your own language, whether you're speaking Spanish or Polish or Chinese, you do this in your language as well. When you're speaking fast, you're taking words and you're squeezing them together; you're connecting them, so one word flows into the next word. That's what we're going to do here. You can connect consonants to consonants. What this means: when a word ends in a consonant... A consonant is "b", "c", "d", "f", "g", etc. A vowel is "a", "e", "i", "o", "u". When a word ends in a consonant and the next word begins with the same consonant, drop the first one. So for example: we do not say: "black coffee", we don't say: "ke, ke". There's only one "k": "bla coffee", "bla coffee." Okay? Practice that. Now, "t" and "d", these are two different consonants, but according to the tongue and the mouth, they almost sound the same so we do the same thing. "Wha do you do?", "Wha do you do?" But again, another thing you have to keep in mind is when we say it fast, we also don't really say "e", we say like a... Sort of like a small... We don't say "o" - sorry -, we say sort of a small "e". "Wha do ye do?" Practice that. "Wha do ye do?" Strange, huh? No "t", "wha", "de ye do?", "Wha de ye do?" That's how a native speaker would say it naturally. Now, another thing is when a word ends in a consonant and the next word begins in a vowel, make sure you roll it in. Right? Roll the consonant into the vowel and separate the syllable before. A syllable is the vowel sounds in a word. Okay? So nobody, like native speakers don't say: "Not at all. Oh no, not at all." We don't say it like that. We say: "Oh, not-at-all.", "Not-at-all.", "Not-at-all." Right? The "t", so this becomes: "No-ta-tall", "No-ta-tall", "Not at all". Okay? Say it quickly, blend the letters one into the next. But again, practice it. Now, for those of you who are going to be taking a test, an English test that involves listening; IELTS, TOEFL, TOEIC, if you're in Canada you're maybe doing a CELPIP test. Okay? This is going to help you on the listening section as well. This is one of the things they're testing. Somebody on the recording will say: "Not-at-all", and you need to cut: "Not at all", you need to understand the separate words, that's part of the test. So practice speaking it, practice listening to it. Another thing we do is we squeeze some words. Okay? Certain words, we don't say all the syllables, we don't even say all the letters. I've heard many students say: "Com-fort-able", "com-fort-able", but native speakers, we don't say this part, we don't say the "or". We say: "Comf-ta-bil", and notice the last sound is like a small tiny, tiny little "i" in there. "Comftabil", "comf-ta-bil", "comftabil". Okay? We don't pronounce the "or": "Comfortable". Nope, don't do that. Another word like that: "Interesting". "In-chre-sting". Find out what the syllables are so: "In-ter" - sorry, my mistake -, "In-ter-rest-ing". If you want to emphasize something, we have a word called: "enunciate". When someone wants to emphasize a word, then they enunciate each syllable; they say each syllable separately. "Oh, that is very in-ter-est-ing." Right? Because I want you to understand that the word is interesting, but in every day speech: "Intresting", "in-tre-sting". "In-ter-est-ing", I have four syllables, when I actually say it naturally, it becomes three syllables and the "t" and the "r" become like a "ch", but that's... We'll talk about that next. Another word: "every". "E-vry". I don't say: "Ev-er-y", I don't say this letter "e", "ev-er-y". "E-vry", "evryone", "evrything", "evry".
Vocabulary - though, although, even though, despite, in spite of
http://www.engvid.com Though, although, even though -- how do we use each of these in English? In this lesson, I'll explain how we use them, and when exactly they are used in English. I'll also teach you the meanings and uses of despite and in spite of. Everything is demonstrated with examples. Test yourself afterwards with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/vocabulary-though/
TO or FOR? Prepositions in English
http://www.engvid.com 'To' and 'for' are prepositions that are often confused. Although they are used in almost all situations, many people do not know which one to use in which situation. This grammar lesson will give you some tips on how to choose the correct one to make your speech and writing smoother. Take the quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/to-or-for/ Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and today's lesson is about prepositions; everybody's favourite little words that get in the middle of everything and cause you lots of troubles, and headaches, and confusion. Especially if you're writing, this is the worst part, but even if you're not; always causes problems. Today's prepositions that we're going to look at: "to" and "for". Now, there isn't really a set rule for these prepositions; they can be used in many different ways. What I'm going to try to show you today is when to use "to" instead of "for", when to use "for" instead of "to". Now, to do that, we first have to look at why or situations in which we use these prepositions. So let's start. If you want to express a reason, - okay? -, then you're going to use "to" or "for". "I went to the store", why? "To buy milk." "I went to the store", why? "For milk." What's the difference between these two? Should be very clear I think. Here I have a verb, here I'm only talking about the noun so we use "to". Now, technically, this is not a preposition. Okay? This is an infinitive verb marker, but it looks like a preposition so we'll treat it as one for now. Verb, noun, that's the difference when you're talking about reason. Now, before we go to the next one, I want you to look at this: "I went to the store", whenever you have sort of a movement, - sorry -, and you have a destination... So by movement I mean: "go", "walk", "drive", "take the bus", for example. Anything that involves you moving or going somewhere and then you're talking about the destination, - means the place that you are going to -, it's always going to be "to". And this is very much a preposition showing direction. Okay? Now, there are of course exceptions. There are situations where you can use "for". "Head for the hills", "Make for the lobby", okay? But very, very specific situations, very specific verbs and you're not going to use them that often because they're not as common. Easier to just use "go", okay? Next: if you want to point out a recipient. What is a recipient? A person who receives something. Okay? "Give this to her.", "This is for her." Now you're thinking: "Well, her, her, what's the difference? They look exactly the same." So here is why I wrote: "verb". In this situation, you're not worried about the preposition, you're worried about the verb. In this case: "give", in this case: "is". Okay? When you... Again, when you have motion... And here, "her" or the person is like a destination; it's not a place, but it's the recipient. Recipient is similar to a destination except you have place and person. Okay? If you have motion and recipient, use "to". When you have situation, then you're going to use "for". Okay? So it all depends on the verb, not the preposition. Now, another example: "Can you send this fax to her?" "Send" means motion, you're going to be doing something, you're going to be moving something. "I made this cake for her." "Made" -- you're not moving anything, nothing's changing hands. Right? You made it, this is the situation and it's for her. Eventually she will be the recipient. "I made this for her. Can you give it to her?" Right? So I'm using both: one motion "to", situation "for".
How to say -ed endings in English
http://www.engvid.com "Past" or "passed"? These two words sound the same! In this quick lesson, you will hear how words ending in -ed sound. This will help get rid of pronunciation confusion with similar sounding words. Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/how-to-say-ed-endings-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again, I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is pronunciation again. We want to look at the way words that end in "ed" sound. Okay? A lot of the people ask me how do different words sound because sometimes they can't understand the "ed" ending; they don't hear it. Okay? That is because "ed" ending words end in three different sounds: the "d", "de"; the "t", "te"; the "id", "id". Okay? Now, how do you know when to use which? It all basically works on the last sound before the "ed". If you go through the whole alphabet, you can put every word into one of these categories. Let's start with a short one: "id". When a word ends in "t" and you want to add the "ed" to it or when a word ends in "d" and you want to add an "ed" ending to it, it's always going to sound like "id", "tid", "did", "wanted", "founded". Why? Because "t" and "d" are too close to that last sound of "d", so we need an extra little sound, an extra little syllable almost to separate the two sounds. "Wanted", "founded", "found", "founded". Okay? So those are those two. Next, we'll go to the "t" sound. When a... The last letter, when a word ends in a "s" sound, the last letter is an "s" or an "x" in this case, then this... The "d" sounds like a "t". Again, hard to switch the tongue in time to get the "d" sound, we get the "t": "fixed", "kicked', "dropped", "sniffed". Okay? "Fixed", "kicked", "dropped", "sniffed". "s", "k", "p", "f" ending sounds go with a "t" ending for the "ed". Most of the other sounds come into the "d" sound. "Managed", "fired", "halved", "jogged", "filled", "doomed", "fined". "j" or "g", soft "g", "r", "v", "g" - oh, that's the hard "g", that's a soft "g" - "l", "m", "n". All of these words that end... Words that end in these sounds, add the "ed", sounds like a "d". "Managed", "fired", "halved", "jogged", "filled", "doomed", "fined". Let's go over the whole list again. "Managed", "fixed", "wanted", "founded", "kicked", "fired", "halved", "dropped", "sniffed", "jogged", "filled", "doomed", "fined". Okay? That's all there is to it. Practice these. Any word that you get that you... That has an "ed" ending, you're not sure how to pronounce it: which category is it in? What is the last letter or the last sound before the "ed"? Find out which category it's in, that's your ending sound. Okay? If you have any questions, please go to www.engvid.com. We have a comment section, you can ask any question you like; I'll be happy to answer them. See you again.
10 GET Phrasal Verbs: get down, get off, get through, get up, get away...
Get through this lesson without getting down. Phrasal verbs with GET are very common and popular in everyday speech. In this lesson we will look at the meanings of words like get up, get over, get through, and more. https://www.engvid.com/10-get-phrasal-verbs/ Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about phrasal verbs using the verb: "get". Now, before I dive into this lesson, I just want to explain a few things. I've gotten many comments on www.engvid.com and many people tell me that phrasal verbs are very difficult. And I understand that, I appreciate that, but I want you to start thinking of phrasal verbs as vocabulary; it's just extra words you have to study. It's not fun, I understand that, but it's not that difficult either. You just have to remember and use, and practice, practice, practice like any other vocabulary you're learning. So today's verb is: "get". Let's look at some of these prepositions we have. "Get up", "Get down", "Get away", "Get over", "Get off", "Get on", "Get in", "Get through", "Get between", "Get along" or "Get along with". So we're going to go one by one. I'll explain basically what they mean. Sometimes they have more than one; sometimes two, sometimes three different meanings. And if necessary, I'll give examples. Oh, sorry about that. Okay, let's start with: "Get up". "Get up", two general meanings you're going to need to know. One is get up, if you're sitting down, if you're lying down and someone says: "Get up", it means: stand up, stand. Get off the floor, get off the chair, whatever. "Get up" also means to get dressed in a certain way. If you're going to a club, you want to get up all fancy and put on a nice dress or a nice suit for the guys. If it's Halloween, you're going to get up in a nice costume. We can also use "getup" as a noun. "Getup" means what you're wearing. "Nice getup" means: "I like your clothes.", "Nice suit.", "Nice costume.", "Nice" whatever it is you're wearing. "Get down", opposite of "Get up". If you're standing, get down or sit down, for example, so get down. If... If a baseball is flying your way: "Get down!" Duck, get underneath it. "Get down" in a slang way means like get down, like enjoy the music, enjoy the party. You know, like get down, dance, do whatever gets you down. We'll get to "Get off" in a second. You'll understand. "Get away". "Get away" means leave. But in a more colloquial way - "colloquial" means like everyday street English, not necessarily slang but common English - "Get away" means go on vacation. And when you go on vacation, you choose a nice getaway. A getaway is a vacation, like a planned vacation or a nice vacation destination, the place you're going to. So Hawaii is a great getaway in winter in Canada because it's cold; Hawaii: beautiful. "Get over". One, there's a... One meaning: get over something physical like there's a wall and you need to get to the other side, so you get over the wall. Okay? But that wall could also be a problem or an obstacle; it doesn't have to be a physical thing. Right? So you have a problem, get over it, move on, as they say. So you and your girlfriend had a fight, okay, get over it, move on. Continue on like nothing happened. Make up, kiss, whatever you do. Next day everything's good; get over it. Okay? That's the most common meanings of: "Get over".
Learn English Grammar: THE SUBJUNCTIVE – "I wish..."
"I wish I were...". "He wishes it would...". Wishes are a part of everyday conversation among native English speakers. Are they all dreamers? Maybe. But most of the time, we use 'wish' to talk about something that isn't true or real, more than to talk about our fantasies. In this grammar lesson for advanced students, you'll learn the correct way to construct sentences using 'wish' and the subjunctive voice. You can also take a quiz on this lesson: https://www.engvid.com/wish-subjunctive/
Grammar: How to use IF & WHETHER properly
Learn how to use "if" and "whether" properly in English. Whether you like it or not, "if" and "whether" are not always interchangeable. In fact, if you use the wrong word, it can change the entire meaning of your sentence. In this lesson, we will review the uses of the two words and see how to use them in a way that will reduce confusion and clarify your ideas. How can you be sure whether to use "if" or "whether" in the proper context? Watch the lesson, and find out! http://www.engvid.com/grammar-if-whether/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. My name's Adam. Welcome again. Today's lesson is a grammar lesson, and this is a question that I am asked often. What is the difference between "if" and "whether"? Okay? It's a very good question. It's pretty simple, straightforward, but we're going to look at both of these in relation to each other. First of all, let's make sure everybody understands "whether" is not spelled the same as "weather", like sunny, raining. This is about rain, sun, snow, wind, temperature; this is similar to "if", it's about having choices. Okay? So, in some situations, "if" and "whether" are interchangeable, but the best way to not make a mistake, not to mix them up in the wrong context is to always use "if" for conditionals; always use "whether" when you're talking about two alternatives, two choices. Okay? You'll see what I mean. When they can be interchanged. First of all, when they are used as noun clauses, means they can be the object or the subject of a sentence, they can mean the same thing. But again, avoid using them the same if you don't want to make mistakes. "Do you know if Dan is coming?" Do you know what? If Dan is coming. "Do you know whether Dan is coming?" In this case, they basically mean the same thing. Yes or no: is he coming or is he not coming? You could add the "or not?" here: "Do you know whether Dan is coming or not?" But the word "whether" already gives you a choice between yes or no in this particular case, so this is not necessary. It's understood. Okay? Now, let's look at these two sentences: "I don't know if the exam is on Friday or Saturday.", "I don't know whether the exam is on Friday or Saturday." So here, we're looking directly at a choice. When I use "whether": "I don't know whether the exam is on Friday or Saturday." So again, you have two options when you look at "whether". Friday is one option, Saturday is another option. The problem here is if you use "if", "if" is not limited to two options. "I don't know if the exam is on Friday or Saturday, or if it's next week sometime." So here, although they seem to mean the same thing, the "if" gives you other options that the "whether" doesn't. "Whether": one, two. "If": one, two, or something completely different. So if you want to avoid making this mistake, use "whether" for the choices, use... Save "if" for when you have your conditional sentence. Now, what is a conditional sentence? A conditional sentence is using "if" as an adverb clause. There's a condition. If "A" happens, "B" will happen. Okay? One thing needs to happen for the second thing to happen, that's the condition. So: "Let me know", oh, sorry. I forgot this word, here. "Let me know if you're coming.", "Let me know whether you're coming." In this case, they're both okay. "Let me know whether you're coming or not." Now, what's the difference between: "Let me know if you're coming", "Let me know whether you're coming or not"? If you are coming, yes, let me know. This is a conditional. If this is true, do this. "Let me know whether you're coming or not." If you're coming, let me know; if you're not coming, let me know. So in this case, both apply. Okay? So, again, use this to... The condition. This is the condition, this is the result. Here, this is going to happen regardless. So we're going to look at this in a second in more detail. Okay? "I'll come over if you want me to." If you want it, I will do it; if you don't want it, I will not do it. So this is the condition. If you want me to, I'll come over. This is the condition, this is the result. So your best option is to always use "if" with conditionals, use "whether" to talk about two alternatives. Now, the other common use of "whether" is to mean "regardless". Doesn't matter what happens, regardless of the situation, here's what I want you to do. "I'm coming over whether you like it or not." Okay. "Whether you like it or not" means if you like it, I'm coming over; if you don't like it, too bad, I'm coming over. So this verb is going to happen regardless of this situation.
English Grammar - comparing with LIKE & AS
http://www.engvid.com This lesson is not like others. You can compare with 'more', but can you do it with 'like' or 'as'? This lesson will help you compare things and actions correctly and help you write and speak as a native speaker does. Test yourself on this lesson with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-comparing-with-like-as/
English Grammar - Inversion: "Had I known...", "Should you need..."
http://www.engvid.com Should you need help understanding why the subject in this sentence comes after the verb, I can show you. In this English grammar lesson, we will look at sentences in which the subject and verb order is inverted, and the particular situations in which to use them. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-inversion/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about inversion. Now, what does "inversion" mean? "Inversion" is when you change the order of something. Right? So we're looking at grammar. Usually, you know in a sentence a subject comes first and then a verb. Today we're going to look at situations where that is reversed. Now, of course, I'm sure that you know that in questions: "Are you sure?" the verb comes before the subject in all questions. That's what makes a question structure a question structure. However, there are other situations where we have this inversion, but we're looking at a sentence; we're not looking at a question. Now, the thing to understand about inversions is that they are very particular. There are only a few expressions that you're going to use inversion with. You can't put them in just about... In just any sentence that you want. The examples that I've written on the board are the ones that you might read or that you might want to write. There are other situations that use this, but unless you're writing poetry or artistic, creative novels - you don't need them and you don't really need to worry about them either. They're very rare. It's very rare you'll see them. It's very, very formal language style. And you'll recognize them, hopefully, when you do see them. So let's start here. When we have "not only". Generally speaking, when we have a sentence that begins with a negative, we're going to have inversion, but especially when you have "not only", you're going to have inversion. Okay? "Not only did he", so there's your verb, there's your subject, there's your verb. Okay? We have the helping verb, the auxiliary verb to start. "Not only did he win", and then we have the "but", "also" to go with "not only". This is like an expression that's fixed; you're always going to be looking at the same thing. "Not only did he win, but he also broke the record." Whatever. "Not only", inversion, "but also". "Under no circumstances", this is another expression that you'll see regularly. And again, we're looking at the negative construction which is why we're looking at the inversion. "Under no circumstances should you call her/call him." Okay? Whatever you do, don't call. "Under no circumstances". "Circumstances", basically situation. In no situation should you call. In no situation, same idea. Okay? Another negative: "nor". What is "nor"? Is the negative of "or". Okay? "Or", "nor". Again, many people don't use this word anymore; it's a little bit old-fashioned, a little bit high formality level. But... "The mayor of Toronto refused to resign, nor do we expect him to." Okay? So after "nor", we still have the inversion. Verb, subject, verb. Verb, subject. Okay? I'm not sure if you know the mayor of Toronto, he's very famous now. We're not very proud, but that's a whole other story. Next, so these are the three negatives. These two are also very similar. Again, very formal style, but you might see it, you might want to use it in your essays or whatever. "Should you need any help, don't hesitate to call." What does this mean? "Should you need", if you need. "Should" is just a more formal way to say: "if". "If you need any help, don't hesitate to call.", "Should you need any help, don't hesitate to call." Now, this is a verb, subject, verb. If we use: "if", then there's no issue. Then you have "if" which is a conjunction, adverb, clause, conjunction, subject, verb. "Should" makes it verb, subject, verb. "Had" is the same thing with the "if", but a different structure of the conditional, a different "if" structure. "Had I known you were coming, I would have changed." "If I had known", "If I had known you were coming", "Had I known", it's basically you're making the sentence a little bit shorter, a little more formal. You're starting with a verb, a subject, and another verb. Okay? Past perfect, of course. So these are the conditionals, these are the no's. Now, we have the comparatives, when you're comparing something. When you're comparing an action, so you're using the clause marker: "as", not the preposition: "like". So: "John speaks Chinese, as does Lucy." Okay? "Lucy" is actually the subject, here's the verb, here's a subject. Now, I could put a period and put a new sentence. "So does Lucy." Same idea. "Lucy does as well." If I want the subject, verb order. But when you start with "as", you're going to invert the order. This is a clause marker, adverb clause marker to compare.
Bored or Boring? Learn about -ED and -ING adjectives in English
Does grammar make you feel "bored" or "boring"? In this video we'll study the difference between "-ed" and "-ing" adjectives and how to use them correctly. I hope I can get you excited about grammar, because it can be interesting when you understand it! This is a great lesson for beginners to learn. But advanced English learners should also make sure they don't make this common mistake! TAKE THE QUIZ: https://www.engvid.com/ed-ing-adjectives-in-english/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video I want to talk to you about a particular type of adjective that many people often confuse, especially beginners, but this is also good for intermediate, even advanced students. We're talking about the "ed" and the "ing" adjectives. Okay? So, for example: "bored" and "boring", "interested" and "interesting". Now, the reason it's important to know the difference between these is because what you say about yourself sometimes, how you describe things can be very confusing to a native speaker especially, but to other people as well if you mix these two up. Now, what does it mean to be bored and what does it mean to be boring? When we talk about "bored", we're describing a feeling. Okay? When we talk about "interested", we're describing a feeling. So all of the "ed" adjectives are actually feelings, and you can only use them to talk about people and sometimes animals. Why? Because things, like chairs, or tables, or whatever, they don't have feelings. A movie, a book doesn't have feelings. TV shows, for example, movies, books, whatever, they cause a feeling in a person. So the "ing" adjectives cause the feeling. The "ed" adjectives are the feeling. Okay? So very important. Only people and animals for the "ed", and for the "ing" you can use people, animals, things, situations, places, ideas, basically any noun because you're describing them. You're describing how they make people feel. So now you're wondering: "Well, I have people here and I have people here, so how can I use 'boring' for people and for... And 'bored' for people?" Sorry. So what we have here, again, feeling and cause of feeling. So if you say: "I'm bored" means that I'm not having fun, I want to go do something else. If I say: "I am boring" means you're not having fun and want to go do something else. So if I am boring means that you are bored. If the movie is boring, then I am bored. Okay? So one thing-the "ing"-causes the feeling-"ed"-in the person. Very important to understand that. So: "I am bored by the movie which is boring. I am interested in this lesson because this lesson is very interesting." Right? "I'm excited, something is exciting." So, for example, I'm excited to go see the concert because this artist is very exciting, this singer or whatever. "I am worried", now people don't realize that "worried" can have "worrying" as another adjective. "The situation is worrying" means the situation is making me feel worried. Okay? Maybe the whole global political situation, whatever. Now, hopefully none of you are confused by this lesson because I'm trying to make it not confusing. Okay? Everybody okay with that? So very important to understand all these nouns can use "ing" because they're creating the feeling, all these adjectives can only be used for people, again, sometimes animals. A dog sees... Sees you coming home after a long day, gets very excited. Its, you know, tail wagging in the back. Dogs don't usually get bored, they just go to sleep. So, animals sometimes. Now, I just want to point out one other thing: Don't confuse feeling adjectives with "ed" with actual feelings. Okay? If somebody is loved, does he feel loved? Maybe yes, maybe no. We're not talking about that person's feelings. "Hated", "envied", these are all feeling words, but these are all verbs. Okay? "He is loved" means somebody loves him or her. "She is loved.", "This person is hated." But we can also use these about things. Okay? "The company is hated." So some companies they do not such nice things or maybe they go to a poor country and use very cheap labour, so this company is hated. So people hate this company. So keep in mind that these are feeling words, but used as verbs; whereas these are other verbs used as adjectives. Okay? Very important to distinguish between these words. I hope this was clear enough. One more thing to say, there's a very long list of these kinds of adjectives, you can just Google them if you need to or you can even ask me in the forum at www.engvid.com. There's a place you can ask questions, feel free to ask me about other examples of these. But there's also a quiz at www.engvid.com where I'll give you more examples of these kinds of adjectives, and you can practice using them in sentences. Make sure you understand the context: "Is somebody feeling this? Is something causing this?" etc. Also, give me a like if you like this video, and don't forget to subscribe to my channel.
Phrasal Verbs with TAKE: "take to", "take in", "take after"...
http://www.engvid.com So you've decided to take up English. Good for you! Take your language skills further by learning phrasal verbs that use the verb TAKE. In this lesson, you'll learn the difference between "taking a girl out to dinner" and "taking the bad guy out of action". We'll also look at expressions such as "take to", "take in", "take after", and more. If you don't know them already, don't worry. I'll take you under my wing! Test your knowledge with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-take/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, phrasal verbs; everybody's favourite lessons. Today, we're going to look at phrasal verbs using the verb "take". Again, a quick review: what is a phrasal verb? A phrasal verb is a verb and a preposition, when put together, giving different meanings. Sometimes one, sometimes two, sometimes more. So, today, we're going to look at "take out", "take in", "take over", "take up",-excuse me-"take after", "take back", "take off", "take on", "take down", "take to". Let's start with "take out". All of you, of course, know takeout food. You go to McDonald's, they ask you if you want to eat in or take out. So, take out means to take your food to go. That's one meaning. Another meaning of "take out" is the literal meaning; exactly what the words mean. For example, you have a turkey in the oven. It is finished cooking. You take it out of the oven. Then, there is also the slang. If you want to take someone out, you kill them. You see this in kind of the mob movies. They want to take someone out; they want to assassinate. Assassinate. I'll have to... Yeah, I'll leave that for now. Okay. "Take in". What does "take in" mean? A few meanings as well. The first is the most common one. If your clothes are too big, if you've lost some weight, you might want to take in your shirt, or your dress, or your pants. You take it to a tailor, and he or she will take it in; make it smaller, tighter. Another meaning of "take in", for example, if you go outside your house and you see a cat, and the cat is sitting there: "Meow, meow", you know, it's all sad and lonely. You take it in. It doesn't mean you take it into your house. It, of course, means that. But more, it means like adopt. You take it into your house, you give it a home, it's part of the family. So, you accept, you take in, you adopt something or someone. "Take over". "Take over" means assume control of something. So, for example, if I own a big company and you own a slightly smaller company, but you're my competition, one way I can beat you is I can take over your company. I can buy a lot of shares in your company, and I take over. I take control. If we're going on a long road trip, and I'm driving and I'm getting tired, I say: "Oh, can you take over the driving?" Means we switch, and you continue driving. "Take up". If you take up space, for example, it means you use. You use space. You take up space in a room. Another way to say "take up" is you start to do something new, like a new hobby, or you start learning something new. So, recently, I took up Spanish. It means I started going to Spanish classes, and I started to learn Spanish. Now, if you add "with", you can take something up with someone. It means you can discuss. So, if you have a problem in your class and you're falling behind, and you're not doing so well, take this problem up with your teacher. It means go to your teacher and discuss the situation. See how you can fix it. Okay. "After". If you take after someone, means you behave like them. It's very similar to look like, except it's not about physical features; it's about personality. So, if you take after someone, you are similar to someone in terms of character or behaviour. So, for example, I take after my mother. My sister takes after my father. My father was a very hot-tempered man. My sister's a very hot-tempered woman, so she takes after him. "Take back". Again, two meanings. There's the literal meaning, so I lend you my pen. You use it. You finished. I take it back. You give it back to me, it returns to me; I take it back. Now, if I said something really mean to you or something not nice, or I made a promise and then I take it back, it means I cancel what I said. So, if I said something that made you upset and I take it back, it means I apologize. I take back the bad words and everything's okay, hopefully. If I made a promise then take it back, it means I'm not going to do this promise anymore. Okay? So you have to be a little bit careful about take backs. "Take off". I think most of you know the airplane takes off. It goes down the runway, then "whew," takes off. But "take off" can also mean to be very successful or very quickly to do well. So, a business starts and, you know, the owners are doing what they can, but suddenly the business just takes off. It becomes very popular, very successful, making lots of money, hopefully, again.
'Knock' in Phrasal Verbs - knock out, knock up, knock over...
http://www.engvid.com Need a knockout lesson? This is it. If you've wondered why girls get knocked up, men get knocked out, or Prada bags get knocked off, this phrasal verb lesson will help you out. After watching the lesson, take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-knock/
Everyday or every day?
http://www.engvid.com Every day, people confuse everyday words in English. In this lesson we will see the big difference a little space between words can make, and how misunderstanding can happen because of it. http://www.engvid.com/everyday-or-every-day/
English Vocabulary - ACTUALLY
http://www.engvid.com 'Actually' is actually used more often in conversation than you think. It has several uses in English, and is a common shortcut we use to correct someone or to emphasize something. In this lesson, you'll hear how to pronounce the word correctly, and learn its full use. http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-actually
Improve your English: ALL or WHOLE?
Not sure about when to use 'all' or 'whole'? This English grammar lesson will help you avoid an extremely common mistake that many students make. See if you get all of the questions right on my quiz at https://www.engvid.com/all-whole/ TRANSCRIPT: Hi again. Adam here. www.engvid.com. I have another lesson for you today. This is actually a request by Feresque -- Feresser? I hope I'm saying it right. Sorry about that. It was in the comments section of www.engvid.com. Please leave questions and comments and requests and we'll do our best to get them for you. So the request was: the difference between "all" and "whole". Now, the reason I also chose this lesson is because this is a very common mistake that students make. They mix these two up all the time. They have very specific roles in situations. We're going to look at them today. The first and most important thing to remember about "all" versus "whole" is where to put the definite article "the". So it's always "all the" whatever you're talking about, "the whole" whatever you're talking about, so always "the" after "all", "the" before "whole". Now, they sound a little bit similar, "all", "whole", but not. Right? So be careful about pronunciation. Sometimes people might think you're mixing them up just because of pronunciation: "all", "whole". Make sure you get that "H" sound and that "O" sound together. Now, what's the difference between "all" and "whole"? "All", you're talking about "everything". Whatever it is you're talking about, you're talking about all of it, basically: everything, one, etc. When you're talking about "whole", you're talking about a "complete" something: a complete package, a complete group, a complete container of something, right? Whatever it is you're talking about, it has to be complete, right? It has pieces inside, and then the whole is the complete collection of whatever it is you're talking about, whereas "all" is just everything that's involved with that noun, etc. So I'm going to give you a very quick example: You're sitting -- your friend went on a trip out of town. He had to take the bus for two hours to his friend's house in Montreal, let's say. He comes back. You ask him "How was the trip?", and he goes, "Oh, my God, there was a baby on the bus, and the baby cried all the time." But if he said, "The baby cried the whole time", do you think that it's a different meaning? Usually people will understand the same thing, but technically, "all the time" doesn't mean two hours crying. It means "cried, stopped, cried, stopped, cried, stopped." It seemed like he was crying throughout the trip, okay? But if somebody said, "The baby cried the whole time", I understand "two hours, baby crying, wah, wah, wah, two hours." It could drive a person crazy. "All the time" -- he cried enough times that it seemed like a long time. "The whole time" means for two hours straight, non-stop. Okay. So that's a big difference between "all" and "whole", okay? "The whole time", I'm talking about the specific duration, the complete journey, two hours. "All the time" -- always: always crying, stopping. Always crying, stopping, crying, stopping, crying, stopping. Not very much fun. But, "I studied all day" -- I have a test tomorrow; I studied all day. "I studied the whole day." In this case, I would understand the exact same thing as well. You can switch these two. But "all day" means, "I studied. I took a break. I studied. I didn't do anything else -- only studied today." But "I studied the whole day" means "I sat at my desk, and I studied; I didn't stop." So that's one of the big differences between "all" and "whole". "Whole" we're talking about time, non-stop, continuous. "All" means in that day, many times, and that's basically -- you did -- that's the one activity that you did, okay? So this is one aspect of "all" and "whole". "The" and duration, like, "always" and the "complete" time of whatever it is you're talking about. We're going to look at a couple of other differences that are very important that you need to keep in mind. Okay, so now we're going to look at a few other differences that are sometimes very small but important. So let's look at the two examples here first: "All my friends came." "My whole group of friends came." What do you notice first about the differences between these two? One, the possessive adjective -- my, his, your, etc. -- with "all" comes after "all" -- comes before "whole": "My whole group of friends came." So I can say "all my friends", all individual friends, right? But remember what I said about "whole". "Whole" means something complete, a complete package of something. So I have "group of friends" came. The meaning is more or less the same, okay? But here I talk about the group; here I talk about the individuals. Very important to remember. But most important -- possessive, after "all", before "whole", okay? That's one.
Writing - Transitions - in addition, moreover, furthermore, another
http://www.engvid.com One of the most important tools for creating good flow in writing is the transition. Transitions are the bridges that allow a reader to move from one idea to the next without getting lost in the language. In this writing lesson, we'll look specifically at transitions to join similar, supporting ideas. I'll teach you how to use 'in addition', 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'another', and more. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/writing-transitions/
English Vocabulary - EVEN: even though, even if, even when...
http://www.engvid.com Even English users sometimes have a problem with this word. EVEN has specific uses and knowing how to apply it will help you emphasize and point out surprising information. In this lesson we will see the word EVEN used in many ways, even though it might surprise you how. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-even/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam, and today's lesson comes from a very common question I get from students. Students sometimes ask me... Like they ask me a question about grammar or whatever, and sometimes I say: "You know what? I'm not sure. I'll tell you tomorrow or I'll tell you the next day", etcetera. And then they say to me: "But you're the teacher, you should know." And I say to them, you know: "Even teachers sometimes need to learn and to continuously grow and find out new things for their students." And then of course the next question is: "What is 'even'?" And I say: "Okay, well there's your... our next lesson." Right? So today's word: "even". Many students... like they hear it all the time, but they don't really understand how it's being used. So today, I'm going to give you some examples because that's the best way to understand this word. Most of you have seen it as: "even though", "even if", or: "even when". There are other uses which we're going to look at in a minute, but first let's go over these. But first, what does..? What does the word: "even" suggest? Okay? When you use the word: "even", you're talking about something that's very surprising. Okay? It's against expectation. What is "expectation"? When you think something will happen because something else happened. For example: if I win a million dollars, you will... You would expect that I will buy a big house or that I will go on vacation or that I will stop working. Okay? So what we're going to see is that sometimes what you think will happen is exactly the opposite or different from what actually happens, and then that's when you use the word: "even". Let's look at the first example: "Even though I was late, my boss wasn't angry." Now, you would think: "You're late, your boss is angry." But I'm stressing that what should have been the case, he should have been angry or she should have been angry, but wasn't, even though I was late. So it's a very surprising situation. If I used only "though": "Though I was late, my boss wasn't angry." This just shows a regular contrast. Okay? Late should equal angry, it wasn't. This shows surprise because usually my boss gets angry when I'm late, - not that I'm late often -, but when I'm late, my boss gets really angry. But today, no, today my boss was calm, nothing going on. He must have had a good weekend, I don't know. Now: "if": "If I win the lottery, I won't have enough money to buy a house." That doesn't make sense. If you win the lottery, you have a lot of money so that's why I'm using: "if". And when I use: "if", I'm also adding the negative, the opposite of what is expected. "Even if I win the lottery, I won't have enough money to buy a house." Okay? It depends how much the lottery is. I think Lotto 649, that's the lottery in Ontario, I think it's three million right now. In Toronto, that'll buy you a little house, maybe. So: "Even if I win". Now: "even when". "If" is a hypothetical; maybe it will happen, maybe it won't happen, probably not. "When" we use for more realistic ideas, when something happens. "Even when he presented the evidence," - when he showed proof that something happened -, "no one believed him." Now, you think evidence, if somebody sees evidence, they believe what you're saying. But even when he presented the evidence, they didn't believe him. Very strange. I can... I put the word here "after": "Even after he showed the evidence..." If you want to talk about time lapse, this is... "When" shows at that time, "after" means later, but both work the same way in this sentence. Okay? So again: "even" means surprising or against expectations, but we are not limited to these three expressions. Let's look at some more. Okay, now another thing to remember about this word: "even" is that it sometimes gives you extra information. Just by using this word, you should be able to understand something else. Okay? So let's look at these examples. "No one thought Tom's joke was funny, not even Kathy." Now, only from this sentence, what can you understand about Kathy? One: you can understand that she always thinks Tom's jokes are funny, so that's why it's a little surprise that even she didn't think this was funny or you think that Kathy always laughs at every joke. Okay? So something about Kathy you can understand from this sentence even though it's not mentioned; you understand something about her personality or about her relationship with Tom, etcetera. Obviously, we need more information to know exactly what, but you understand that there's something else because of this word.
9 TURN Phrasal Verbs: turn on, turn off, turn over, turn around, turn out...
http://www.engvid.com Learn nine phrasal verbs with the verb TURN. You've heard these phrases before but weren't sure what they meant. In this English lesson, learn phrases such as turn in, turn over, and turn out. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/turn-phrasal-verbs/ Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is phrasal verbs. Okay? We have phrasal verbs with the verb: "turn". Again, remember: just like vocabulary, remember them, practice them, use them over and over again, you will remember them very well. And again, remember: phrasal verbs: usually or almost always more than one meaning. Okay? So keep that in mind. Let's start with: "turn on". So, of course, all of you have some sort of electronic equipment at home; you have appliances, you have stereos, you have lights. You want to "turn on" lights and then you want to "turn off", dark. Okay? So that's the easy one. "Turn on": put power to, as it were. Slang: to "turn-on" means to get someone excited. Okay? Or to create an interest in. So, if a woman is wearing like a nice summer dress with like really thin straps, and like very loose, it's a turn-on for a lot of guys. Here, I'm using it as a noun, a "turn-on". That woman knows how to turn on men. Men can turn on women in other ways, hopefully not with a summer dress at the same time. Okay? It's slang. Be careful with it. Something turns you on, it gets you excited. But you can also turn on... a teacher, hopefully, will turn his students on to the subject that he's teaching or she's teaching. If you want your student to study history, you have to turn them on to it; make them interested, make them excited about it. "Turn off", again, the opposite. "Turnoff", notice here: hyphen, here: no hyphen for the nouns. But to turn off means to make someone lose interest or to disgust someone, to make someone go: "Ulgh, no I don't want any of that." Lose all interest, lose all excitement, not be able to do anything. It's a turnoff, so something turns you off, like a bad smell will turn you off in pretty much any situation. Okay, "turn up". Now, if you have a stereo, you want to "turn up" the volume, make it louder. Okay? The opposite will be "turn down". I didn't write it here, but "turn down": lower, "turn up": raise the volume. But "turn up" can also mean to discover. Okay? So, I was reading through the book, I was doing some research and an interesting piece of information turned up, something I wasn't expecting. Okay? But "turn up" also means to appear. I invited a lot of people to my party, but twice as many turned up, means appeared, they came. Interesting. "Turn over": again the physical, you turn something over like if you're cooking a steak; cook it on one side for two minutes, turn it over, cook the other side for a couple of minutes, so flip. But "turnover" in terms of like business, if you have a restaurant, you want to turn over your tables as many times as you can, means you want to rotate their use. So somebody comes in, they eat, you clean... They leave, you clean up, you get the next person. So this table has a good turnover. Okay? You can use it more than one time; it's like rotating the cycle of its use. Then we talk about "turnover". A good restaurant must have a high "turnover". If it doesn't, then it must have very expensive menu prices or menu items or it will go out of business. McDonald's, for example, has huge turnover. That's why they make so much money; always busy. "Turn around": sorry to show my back to you, but I turned around and now I turned around again to face you. Okay? So that's again, the physical, so the physical turn around. But "turn around" can also just mean change. So last week, my boss agreed to give me a raise, but this week he turned around and decided not to; he changed his mind. Okay. "Turn in": so when your teacher gives you a test, you write the test, at the end of the class you have to turn it in; submit. Sometimes we say "hand in", it's the same thing. You can also "turn in" a criminal to the police. So you know that this person did something bad, you call the police, say: "Yeah, he did it." So you turn him or her in to the police. Now, also used in slang - and don't ask me why because I don't know -, "turn in" also means go to sleep. Okay? "Oh, I'm tired. I think I'll turn in. Goodnight." Go to sleep, turn in.
Improve Your English Vocabulary: 8 ways to say 'WANT'
Do you want to be more fluent in English? I'll teach you different ways native English speakers say "want". You'll learn new vocabulary used in conversational English. Saying things like 'crave', 'feel like', and 'in the mood for' instead of saying 'want' will make you sound more natural and intelligent. It's also necessary to understand English slang. Dying to know more? Check out this lesson! And you'll also want to take the quiz afterwards: http://www.engvid.com/improve-your-english-vocabulary-6-ways-to-say-want/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit interesting because what we're doing is looking at other ways to say "want". Now, you're thinking: "It's a simple word, just say 'want' every time." But native speakers like to mix up their language a little bit; they like to use different things, different expressions for different moods, different feelings, they want to emphasize something or they want to really exaggerate something, make it more than it is. So we're going to look at different ways to say "want". I have eight different expressions for you. Now, I know that everybody knows this one: "would like". -"Would you like some tea?" -"Yes, I would like some tea. Thank you. Please and thank you." Very polite, a little bit more formal than "want", no problem. But then we have "feel like". -"Hmm. Let's go out for dinner tonight." -"Hmm. What do you feel like?" -"I don't know. I feel like a pizza. I feel like a pizza." It means I want a pizza. That's what I have the feeling for. But basically, this means: "I want this." I could say: "I want a pizza", but that's kind of boring. "I feel like a pizza" means: "Mm, that would really satisfy me right now. That would make me feel good." In the same way... Oh, okay, we have it down here. "I could go for". -"Hmm. What could you go for?" -"I could go for a hamburger. I could go for a lobster." Go for... And usually we say "could go for", because it's just an idea. Right? I might not get it, but "I could go for" means I want this. Whether we can have this or not, I'm not sure, but that's what I'm craving right now. That's the mood I'm in right now. Okay? So, "I could go for a hamburger" means let's go get a hamburger, if one's available. And you just heard me say "in the mood for". "In the mood for" is similar to "feel like". "Mood" is basically a feeling, but it's more of a mental feeling than a physical feeling. So if I'm in the mood for something, that's what I want. That's the only thing that will satisfy me right now. This is what I want now; nothing else. Later, I'll be in the mood for something else. Okay? So: -"What are you in the mood for?" -"I don't know. I'm in the mood for pizza." I already used pizza. Let me think of something else. "I'm in the mood for a falafel", because that's yummy. "Craving". Now, "craving", basically means want, but a very, very strong want, like a really strong desire for something. Right? Like nothing else will satisfy you except for this particular thing. Your mouth is already tasting it before you even have it. It's a craving. -"I'm going to go get some sweets. What can I get for you?" -"Mm. I'm craving a donut." It means that's what I really want right now. That's what I, mm, like the juices are coming. I'm salivating already. "Salivating" means like the juices are flowing in the mouth because I want something delicious. "Dying for". "I'm dying for something" means I really, really, really want. Again, all of these basically mean "want", but there's different degrees of want. So if you're dying for something, it means probably you haven't had it for a long time, and that's why you're dying for it. You feel like if you don't get it, you're going to die. Of course, you're exaggerating, but that gets that... Gets the idea across much more strongly. Now, we have another couple of expressions. If something will "hit the spot"... So, for example: "Wings will really hit the spot right now" means the spot is right here and a little bit here, too. Right? So if something hits the spot, means that's the only thing that's going to satisfy you. So if you say something is going to hit the spot or something would hit the spot, usually... If something would hit the spot, then that's what you really want right now. This is a very common idiom, actually. The last one, I just put it in for fun. It's pretty rare. You won't hear it very often. It comes from Shakespeare from the play King... Sorry, Richard III, he says: "A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse." He will trade everything he has if somebody will just bring him a horse. That's all he wants, a horse.
EITHER, NEITHER, SO, TOO - How to agree and disagree in English
http://www.engvid.com Are you confused by words such as "too", "either", "neither", and "so"? Do you ever agree with an opinion that you really don't share? Or disagree when in fact you think the same thing? Sometimes this happens because you are not sure of which words to use to agree or disagree. After this grammar lesson, you should be able to get your opinion across more easily. Test yourself with the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/either-neither-so-too/
Basic English Vocabulary - GET
http://www.engvid.com Let's get started by looking at the word 'get' followed by participles and other words. 'Get' is one of the most frequently used words in English, but it can be confusing. "Get angry", "get going", and "get a burger" each use the word in a different way. This lesson will show you how you can use 'get' properly in different ways. You can also take a quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/basic-english-vocabulary-get/
Phrasal Verbs with BACK: "back up", "back off", "back out"...
Do not back out of this lesson because you are about to learn common English phrasal verbs with "back"! You will learn the meaning of "back up", "back away", "back off", "back in", and more. Don't forget to back up your new knowledge by doing our quiz at http://www.engvid.com/ Don't miss this useful lesson. Espera, ve esta clase, no te eches para atrás, porque estás a punto de aprender todos los verbos en inglés con la palabra "back". En esta clase aprenderás el significado de "back up", "back away", "back up", "back in", y más. No te olvides de respaldar el conocimiento que has adquirido con la prueba que presentamos al final. No te pierdas esta útil clase de inglés. TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, everybody's favourite: phrasal verbs. Today we're going to look at phrasal verbs using the verb "back". And again, as always a review: phrasal verb is a combination of a verb plus a preposition. So today we're looking at "back up", "back away", "back down", "back off", "back in", "back into", and "back out". You will hear these in everyday speech, just like most phrasal verbs are very commonly used. And unfortunately, you just have to remember them and use them. So let's start with "back up". Most of you, I think, know "back up" from using a computer. If you have lots of files on your computer, maybe you download some things, maybe you have some projects on your desktop - you don't want to lose these, so you want to back them up on a hard disk, or a CD, or a USB stick, whatever the case. So "to back up" means to make a copy of your files. Okay? "Back up" can also mean exactly what the words mean: back up, to go backwards. Okay? You can back up your car, it means just go back a bit, back yourself up a little bit. Now, "back up", a very common use is support. If your friend is going to do something dangerous, like mountain climbing, maybe you want to go to the top of the mountain to back him up. You're going to hold the rope, you're going to give him support. Okay? You're going to make sure he doesn't hurt himself. It could also mean "reinforce". Excuse me. So, for example, if police are chasing a criminal and the criminal has some friends with guns, the police will call headquarters and ask them to send some backup. So, in that case, we're going to use it as one word. So "backup" means reinforcements; extra police to come and back up the first police officers to support them to make sure everybody's okay. "Back away". So, "back away" is similar... A little similar to "back up", except we just say: "Back away." So let's say somebody fainted on the ground, and I am trying to give CPR. And I'm trying to help this person, and suddenly, a crowd comes. So I say to everybody: "Okay. Back away, back away." It means: get away, move. Okay? Very simple. Very straightforward. "Back away". "Back down", now, you come to me and you start an argument. You think that A is correct. I think that B is correct, and we argue, argue, argue until finally one of us backs down. Now, "to back down" means to retreat or to go back from a confrontation. A little bit like "give up", but not give up. Means I become weaker, you become stronger, and you're going to win the argument. So, "to back down" means a little bit to give up on a fight. Okay. Okay, we'll leave that one there. "Back off". Now, "back off" is similar to "back away", except if I tell people to "back away", it means to get back and make some space, but if I say to "back off", it means you're threatening me. I feel you're trying to hurt me or you're trying to do something bad to me, and I get angry and I say: "Back off. Don't make me angry, because we'll start a fight, or something will happen, and we don't want that, so back off." Be very careful about the pronunciation: "back off" sounds like a little something else off, but it's not. It just means go away; don't bother me, don't fight with me. "Back in". Now, very limited uses for this one, but let's say you're driving a car and there's a parking spot there, so you want to back into it, like you want to do a parallel park. Or you want to go into the garage, but you don't want to go forward, so you back the car into the garage. Okay? "Back into", also, means the same as "back in". Like you can back into a spot or into a space, but also we use "back into", it means as you're moving back, you hit something. So you backed into the wall. Okay? You backed into the trash can, etc.
IELTS & TOEFL Writing Task 2 - The Introduction
http://www.engvid.com The IELTS and TOEFL essay's success is determined by its introduction. In this writing lesson we will look at how to construct an introduction paragraph that will not only make reading easier for the grader, but will also keep you focused on what you need to say. It really is as simple as 1, 2, 3, 4. Test yourself with the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/ielts-toefl-writing-task-2-introduction/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Nice to see you again. Today's lesson is for IELTS and TOEFL students, and so because these students need a little extra practice in listening to more natural speed English, I will speak a little bit faster. If you're a beginner English learner, watch anyway. It's still good practice, but don't worry if I'm speaking a little bit too fast. So more specifically, I'm going to be looking at the Writing -- Task 2, the essay of the IELTS and/or TOEFL. They're very similar. That's why I'm doing them together. There're not big differences, but I will point them out. And what I'm doing is I'm concentrating on the introduction today, the introduction paragraph. I'm not showing you the whole essay; I'm just showing you the introduction. Now, you're wondering, "Why? It's just the introduction. It's a short one, right?" No. This is probably the most important paragraph in your whole essay. This is where you, basically, make or break your score, okay? Why? Because here is where the reader understands what you're about to do. This is where the grader -- the person who's giving you your score -- understands if you understood the question; understands if you know what you're talking about; and understands if you knew how to plan well, okay? Very, very important the first paragraph, the introduction. So what are you going to do? Of course you're going to plan first. You're not going to start writing. Do not write one word of your essay until you have your plan ready. Once you have your plan ready, your essay is done. You just have to, basically, translate this plan into sentences. You're basically going for three to five sentences. Less than three, you missed something; you didn't do enough. More than five, you're going for words. You don't have time; don't worry about it. Three to five -- get down what you need to get down. Get into your bodies where you're going to be writing the most, okay? There are four questions you want to answer in the introduction. You will already have these answers once you've planned properly, okay? What do you want to answer? "What is the topic?" "What is the question?" "What is your opinion?" And "What are your reasons?" These are the four things that must be included in the introduction. Now, a lot of you think, "Well, 'topic' and 'question' is the same thing, right?" But no; they're not. This is where a lot of people lose points because they don't realize that these are two different things. The "topic" is the general idea of what the question is about. The "question" is, specifically, what are you asked to do. Now, the most common type of question you will see on both the IELTS and the TOEFL is a question that asks you to choose between two things. They want you to choose one and argue why that one is better than the other one, or why that one is so good. Now, what I'm going to show you today will mostly apply to these types of questions. But if you have a question that asks you to compare and contrast two things, keep in mind even if they ask you to compare two things, they're still going to ask you to lean towards one of them, to choose one as better than the other, in which case you're still going to need to give your opinion, okay? "What is the topic?" You're going to keep this very, very general. All you're doing is giving the idea of what the essay is about. So I know all of you have probably practiced this question: "Is it better to live in the countryside or in the city? Explain your reasons, giving examples, etc." Your first sentence, very, very general: What is the topic of this question? City life? Country life? No. The topic is "where to live". So your first sentence introduces the idea of living -- choosing a place to live. The question is then more specific, so your sentence narrows a little bit, becomes a little bit more focused. The question is: "Is it better in the country or the city?" Okay? Then, you have to give your opinion. You must say, "I believe", "I think", "in my opinion". You don't have to use these words. There're other ways to say your opinion, but if you're not sure of those, put one of those; make it very, very clear what you're saying. This is your thesis. This is a very specific sentence. After reading this sentence, I, the grader, must understand which side you've chosen and what you're going to argue. And then you see the last sentence gets a little bit more general. Why? Because you're giving your reasons. You're not giving me details.
Basic English Vocabulary - SEEM
http://www.engvid.com English seems difficult sometimes. But if you get the right explanations, it's not that hard after all! In this lesson, we'll look at the verb 'seem'. I'll teach you what it means, and how to use it properly. After the lesson, take the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/basic-english-vocabulary-seem/ TRANSCRIPT: Hi, again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is about the verb "seem", okay? And this was requested by Sheila from Indonesia on our Facebook page. If you want to make any requests for lessons, please ask. Today, we're going to look at the verb "seem". Now, this is a verb that creates a lot of problems for students because it's not an action verb and it's not a "be" verb. It's somewhere in between, okay? Actually, we call this a "state verb", but I'll explain that again after. So for example, you've heard this sentence, "You seem happy." Or, "you seem upset." What does that mean? Does that mean that you are happy or that you are upset? Maybe. I don't actually know. This is just what I think. Or, "He seems to be a pilot." It means, "I think he's a pilot, but I don't know." So basically, "seems" means something looks like something or it feels like something but it's not necessarily true. It's probably true because that's the image or the impression that we have, but we don't know for sure if this is what that is or the situation is true. Okay? So it's something that you think but you're not sure about. It's more like an opinion or even a guess. Okay? So that's the hardest part about "seem" because it's not saying something is or isn't. It's something maybe. What's the difference between "you seem happy" and "you are happy"? "You are happy" means -- this is a declarative. This is true. This is the case. This is the situation. "Happy" describes "you". "You seem happy" means you're smiling, but maybe you're very sad and you're just hiding it. Or maybe you're very, very -- you seem very calm, but you're really upset, right? So "seem" -- all that "seem" means is the appearance, nothing else. It's not true. It's not untrue. Okay? We're going to look at a couple more examples, and you'll have a better idea of what I'm talking about. Okay. So let's look at something else now. Remember I said that "seem" is a state verb. What does that mean? It means you can never use it with an -ing. You can never say, "He is seeming nice" or, "She is seeming to be" -- something else. Right? So it's never used as an-ing. That's one thing. If you want to talk about a particular quality of somebody -- like, you want to talk about something specific. Not about the person, maybe about what the person does. So, "She seems to be good at her job." In this case, you must add the "to be". Before, we wanted to use a noun after "seem", so we used "to be". Now, we are using an adjective, but you still have to use "to be" because I'm not describing "her". I'm describing a quality of "her". Okay. So that's the main thing. Now, I said you can never use "seem" with-ing. But here, you're looking at this word and going, "What's going on? There's an-ing." But there's also an-ly. This is an adverb, adverb that is telling you something about the adjective. So let's look at these three sentences. "He is nice." If I said, "He is nice", is he nice? Yes. This is just stating a fact. It's a declarative sentence. If I say, "He seems nice", is he nice? Maybe, but probably. Okay? But this one is a little bit tricky. If I say, "He seems nice", he's probably nice. If I say, "He is seemingly nice", what does that mean? It's a little bit tricky. It means he is acting nice, but he's not really nice. Tricky, isn't it? "Seemingly nice" means he's putting on this impression, but there's a reason he's putting it on. He's not really nice. He's just pretending to be nice. So you have three different sentences, and "seems" and "seemingly" -- completely different meanings, completely different idea behind them. Okay? So it's a little bit tricky. "He seems nice." "He seems to be good at his job." "He is seemingly nice." Three different ways of using the verb "seem". Remember; we use it like an action verb, "he seems", "she seems", but never with-ing. Okay? So like an action verb for the "S"s, but it's like a "be" verb because there's no action. It's just a situation. Okay. Again, if you want to get more examples, go to www.engvid.com. I have a quiz there that will hopefully help you. And if you have any questions, write them in the comments. See you next time.
English Grammar - Causative
http://www.engvid.com Need to get your hair cut? You can have your friend do it for you. These sentences both use a sentence structure known as the CAUSATIVE. In this grammar lesson we will look at this structure in both the active and passive forms. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/english-grammar-causative/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is the causative. Now, I get asked many times how to construct and use the causative structure. First of all, "What is the causative", you're wondering? If you have someone do something for you, then you are using the causative voice. For example, if you have the waiter bring you a glass of water, this is a causative. If you have your hair cut, that is a causative. The difference -- active and passive -- we will look at that in a moment. First thing we need to do is understand how to construct this sentence structure. So we're going to have -- I broke it down into little pieces, everything that you can understand. The difference between a causative sentence and a regular sentence is we use an agent in the causative. We have a subject; we have the causative verb; we have the agent -- the person or thing that is going to do something for you; we have the verb; and we have the object. So first, the causative verb. There aren't that many that you will use. These are the four most common ones: have, make, let, get. There are others, but the others are so obvious that we don't need to worry about them too much, like "ask". "He asked someone to bring him something." It's very clear. I think most people know how to use it. It's these four that give people problems, especially these three. Why? Because I'm going to use a base verb with them. With "get", I'm going to use an infinitive verb, "to" verb. Okay? So again, subject -- "I" for example -- "had" -- you can go past. Whatever tense you're looking for -- future, past, present -- this is going to take the tense, not this. Your causative verb is going to take the tense. " 'I had' someone, 'I have', or 'I am having' someone, 'I will have' someone cut my hair." For example. I need a haircut, actually, now that I think about it. So, "I had the barber -- in this case, cutting hair -- cut -- base -- my hair -- object." Okay? The main thing to remember is that the agent can be a person or a thing, okay? "I had" -- well, we'll talk about that in the passive. "I had the package delivered. "That's object, still. "I had the car drive to somewhere else." It's a little bit strange if you have an automatic car. I'll think of a different example for you after that, okay? But agent, person, thing. Object could be direct object, the person. It could be indirect object, so it's a thing or a person, what or who. So, "I had the barber cut my hair." Now, what do these mean, these four verbs? Excuse me. These three -- have, make, and get -- basically mean cause. You're causing someone to do something. But you're wondering, "Okay. All of them mean cause. When do I use which one?" Right? It's a little bit of a nuance, very subtle differences. When you "have someone do something", basically, you're commissioning them; you're paying them. "I will have the painter paint my house." "I will have the mechanic fix my car." These are services. You're paying someone to do something. "I will make someone do something." You're a little bit forcing them, right? "I will make my little brother clean my room. Why? Because he's my little brother. I'm bigger than him. I can make him do things. So I will." Get. "Get" is more like "convince". You persuade someone to do something for you, right? "I will get my sister to do my laundry. Why? Because she's nice, and she likes me, and I know how to speak to her. That's why". "Let" is, basically, "give someone permission". So very clear. Have, make, get -- causing it in its own way; let -- allow. Okay. Then, this -- all of this is the active causative. "We make someone do something". But we can also use the passive causative, in which case we have the subject; we have the causative verb again; we have the object, next; and we have the verb in a past participle form. Notice that we don't -- I didn't include the agent. You can include the agent. Usually, it's obvious; you don't need to, right? So if I had my hair cut, who did it? The barber. Do I need to say it was the barber? No. You understand that, right? So the agent is optional. I'll put it in brackets, in parentheses.
Learn English: How to understand native speakers
Do you find it hard to understand casual English conversations? It's not your fault! Native speakers don't speak clearly, but you still need to understand them. In daily conversation, we take shortcuts in our speech. This is usually done by "dropping" consonant sounds. In today's video I'll explain why this happens, and how you can improve your understanding of native speaker pronunciation. You'll get to hear some of the most common words and expressions that English speakers drop consonants from so you'll be prepared when you hear them. I'll also teach you strategies to improve your English listening skills and recommend some listening exercises you can do while listening to music and watching movies. http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-how-to-understand-native-speakers/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit tricky because I want to help you understand native speakers. I want you to understand how they speak. So, for example, if you hear somebody say: "What did you do that for?" You should be able to understand what the person said. Now, whether you understood what I just said or not, not important yet; we're going to get to that. So "Native Speaker Pronunciation". Now, before I get into this lesson, I want you to understand: I don't want to teach you how to speak like this. Okay? I don't want you to speak like this. I want you to speak good, clear, strong English, just like I'm speaking to you now. But I also want you to understand that when I am with my Canadian friends, for example, I speak a little bit more like this. It's just natural, it's habit. It's not a good habit, but it's habit. Okay? Now, I had a few comments on www.engvid.com, quite a few people asking me: Why do I understand you? Like why do you understand me, Adam, but when I watch a TV show or when I watch a movie, I don't know what they're saying? Why? Why such a big difference? Well, first of all, let me say that I am speaking to you, knowing what you can and cannot understand, for the most part. So I don't speak to you like I... Like I would with my Canadian friends who are native English speakers. I don't speak to you like Hollywood actors speak on the movie. Okay? I'm speaking to an audience. I know that they need to listen to me, that you need to understand everything I say, so I enunciate, I speak very clearly. I stress each syllable so that you can catch every word I say. But I'm going to talk about when and where to speak like this in a minute. So, I did actually do a lesson about how to speak like a native speaker before. You can learn how to make elisions, how to connect sounds, how to... When you have two sounds that are the same, to drop one of them. This is a little bit different. We're going to look at dropped sounds inside words. Now, these words, for example: "listen", no "t"; "plumber", no "b"; "dumb", no "b". These words are not dropped sounds words. These are just the way these words are constructed; we are supposed to make the "t" silent, we are supposed to make the "b" silent. That's just how the word is built. But native speakers, native English speakers... And I'm sure this is the same in your native language if you pay attention carefully to how you speak and how your friends speak, we like to take shortcuts. Okay? We don't like too many syllables. We like to have fewer and fewer syllables to make the speech go faster. We don't want to think too much about what we're saying. So, for example, here are a few words. Now, I'm looking at consonant clusters. Does everybody remember what a consonant is? B, c, d, f, g, etc. Vowels: a, e, i, o, u. All the other letters, consonants. So when we have consonant clusters, these are groups when you have consonants bunched together; you have a few of them together. When we have words with this situation, we tend to drop one, maybe two of those consonants. So, for example, the word "probably". Pro-bab-ly, pro-bab-ly-. I have three syllables in this word, but when I'm speaking in natural speed, I say: "Probly". -"Are you coming to the party tomorrow night?" -"Yeah, probly." Now you're watching me on a TV or you're watching me in a movie, and you're thinking: -"What?" -"Probly." -"What?" -"Probly." Okay? All I'm saying is "probably", but what I'm doing, because I have "b, b, l", I have a little cluster of consonant sounds, I'll just drop this one; I don't need it. You'll understand me without it, right? I think with another native speaker. "Probly". "Good bye", even two consonants, ah, too much. "Gobye. Gobye". I barely even say the o's, I just say like: "Gobye". Okay? "Old friend". Now, in the other video, I told you if the letters... The very last letter and the first letter are the same, you can drop one, but we do it anyway, even if they're not the same. "I have an ol' friend. Ol' friend who I met for dinner last night. Oh, I met an ol' friend from high school."
Travel English: How to go through customs at the airport
Do the customs officers at the airport in the U.S. make you nervous? Me too. But there is no need to be. Just be prepared and calm, and use the tips in this lesson to make your experience much smoother and less stressful. Learn the words and phrases they will use when they ask you questions, and learn how to answer. If you answer incorrectly, you may be shot. Don't forget to practice with the quiz before you fly! http://www.engvid.com/travel-english-airport-customs/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is a little bit specialized. We're going to talk about going through customs at a U.S. airport, more specifically, at an airport. Now, before I begin, why am I doing this lesson? Not too long ago, I flew... I had to go out of town and I had to fly through the States. I flew through Detroit, it's a big hub. In case you're ever flying through a hub, a hub is a central area where many flights come and connect to other flights. And I was in line at the customs, and ahead of me was a couple, they were tourists, I think. And I could see the panic on their faces when the custom guy... Customs guy started speaking to them and asking them questions, and they were so nervous, and they could barely speak. And the more nervous they became, the more questions they got from the customs guy. So, I want to make going through customs as easy as possible for you by giving you a few tips. First thing you have to remember when you come to the customs guys: have all your forms completed properly. So, if you're coming into a States, you're going to be given a form, I think it's an I-94 form with all kinds of questions. Fill out everything correctly, properly. If you're not sure what something means, ask a flight attendant to help you, they will. Fill everything before you get to customs. Have all your documents; your passport, your return flight ticket. If you're going as a student, have your Visa. If you're going there to work, have your Visa, your work permit, whatever you need. All documents ready, all forms complete, ready to go. Then the most important thing that you can do when going through customs at an U.S. airport is relax. Okay? Very important to relax. Now, one thing you will notice about American customs officers, they never ever smile. They will never smile. They are always going to look mean, and tough, and questions, questions, questions. That's their job. They're nice people. Don't think anything badly of them. They're doing their job, they want to scare you so that you give them the information that they need. So, relax. Answer all their questions quickly and as short as possible. If they ask you a yes/no question, answer yes or no. Almost... In most cases, in 99% of the questions, don't say: "I don't know." You do know. You know everything that they're going to ask you. Yes, no, there, there, this long, that person, done. Okay. So, they can ask you any number of questions, but here are a few of the more common questions that they might ask you. Okay? So, be prepared, answer them quickly, go on your way, enjoy your vacation in the U.S. What is your final destination? It means: where are you going? Where is your last stop? So, if you're flying in to New York and then you're catching another flight to Kentucky, your final destination is Kentucky, not New York. So, you're going to Kentucky. If you're going to another country, so for example I was coming back to Canada. What is your final destination? Toronto. I was just flying through the U.S. How long will you be staying in the U.S.? Again, never say: "I don't know." You do know. You have a return ticket out. If you have an open ticket, say you have... "I have a one-year open ticket. I'm not sure when I'm going to go back, but within one year." Have that ticket ready to show him or her. Okay? How long will you be staying? Two days, a week, two weeks, whatever. What is the purpose of your visit? Why are you here? To visit family, work or business, tourism, vacation, or transit. Okay? I was there, just transit. Transiting. I was just catching a flight to my next place, which is Canada. I was just here to transit. No problem. Where will you be staying? Now, this is a very important question. If you are staying in the U.S., make sure you have your hotel address ready to tell the customs officer. If you're staying with a friend, have your friend's address ready to tell the customs officer. If you're staying in a dorm, if you're a student, say the name of the school, the dorm, have the address ready. Never say: "I don't know. I haven't figured it out yet." They want to know where to find you if they need to find you. Okay? Make sure you have an actual place to stay.
8 'head' phrasal verbs - head up, head out, head off...
Head to http://www.engvid.com for help with vocabulary! In this lesson we will look at phrasal verbs that use the verb 'head' with different prepositions to mean different things. You'll learn the meaning of head to, head up, head over, and more. Head over to http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-head/ to take the quiz! TRANSCRIPT Hi again. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at phrasal verbs, and today's phrasal verb is -- starts with -- "head": "head up", "head down", "head out", "head over", "head in" or "head inside" - both okay -, "head back", "head off", "head for". Okay? These are the ones we're going to look at and we're going to give examples of each one. First thing to notice: I have... I've grouped these all into one bunch. Basically, these all mean "go". So when we say "head" with any one of these it means "go", but where we go, the direction we go, that changes with each preposition. So let's look at them. When I say: "head up" generally I'm talking about going north. Okay? So if I'm in the US, I'm going to head up to Canada because I'm going north. If I'm in Canada, I'm going to head down to the States. Generally speaking, when we travel or when we go somewhere or drive somewhere especially, we use "head up", "head down". So again, "head up", "head down". If you're going east or west, you basically just "head over" to wherever you're going. Actually let me get to this one: so "head over" means go to a destination or go to a place. So I'm sure some of you have heard the expression "come over". -"Hey, what are you doing?" -"Nothing." -"Well, come over." "Over" means over to my house or over to where I am. So if you're going to head over to somewhere, you're going to go to a specific place. My friend calls me says: "Well, do you want to come over?" And I say: "Yeah, I'll head over right now." Means I'm going to come to your house right now. That goes with "head out". "Head out" basically means "go" but it also means "leave". Okay? So if I'm going to "head out in five minutes" means I'm going to leave here in five minutes; I'm going to go in five minutes. My friend calls me up, says: "Hey, you're late. Where are you?" Say: "Oh, sorry. I got, some things came up. I'm going to head out in five minutes." -- I'm going to leave in five minutes. If you're sitting outside, nice sunny day, drinking with your friends and then you get a little bit tired and you want to go inside your house you say: "I'm going to head in." Okay? "I'm going to head inside." Basically means "go in", "go inside". Usually you would say this when the "in" is understood like if you're outside your house, you're going to head in. If you're in a patio of a restaurant and there's too much sun, "I'm going to head in" or "head inside" -- inside the restaurant. Okay? "Head back" -- go back. We're going for a little trip and I'm getting a little bit tired or a little bit bored and I say: "You know what? Ah, forget it. I'm going to head back." I'm going to turn around, go back where I came from. Okay, all very easy. These two are a little bit different. "Head off" basically means to stop something from happening or to block, and I'll even say here prevent something from happening. Okay? So my girlfriend found out that my ex-girlfriend lives in the same city, and she found out that my ex-girlfriend is going to come over to my house and try to hook up again. So my girlfriend is going to go head her off, she's going to go and block the way; she's not going to let her get to me. Okay? She's going to "head her off at the pass", we say -- it's an expression. Old western movies, you got the cowboys, you got the Indians and the Indians are coming in for attack, and the cowboys, they head them off at the pass. Now, it could also mean to make them change course or make whoever, make something change course. Basically means make it change direction. So I'm going this way, somebody came to head me off and make me go this way instead of this way. Okay, easy. "Head for" also means "go" but it's not so much "go", it's more about move, move towards something specifically or even aim. Okay? So there's an old expression: "Head for the hills." If there's a flood coming, if it's raining very heavily and the water's starting to rise, head for the hills; go toward the hills that are higher, you can keep your feet dry. Okay? So these are all the different uses of "head" with a preposition. Head north: head up; head down: south; head out: leave or go; head over: go to a specific spot or place that you spoke with someone about; head back: go back; head off: stop, block, make change direction; head for a specific place. Now, if you want to get detailed examples, if you want sentences using all of these, go to www.engvid.com. There's a quiz there -- you can try out all these phrasal verbs. Also, check out my YouTube site and subscribe to it. And come back again; visit us, we'll give you another lesson. Thank you.
IELTS Writing Task 1 - What to write!
How to succeed in Task 1 of the IELTS Academic writing section. One question that often comes up in Task 1 is "What should I include in the report?" In this lesson, we'll go over some of the key elements to look for in the infographics you will be given, as well as how to present them in a clear structure. Should you write an introduction? What about a conclusion? Should you put in your personal opinion? If you're talking the IELTS, you *must* watch this class! Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/ielts-writing-task-1/ More IELTS resources: http://www.GoodLuckIELTS.com
You've seen the words other, the other, and another before, but in this lesson you'll see how they are used to identify numbers (plural/singular), a prior reference, and as transitions in essays, such as those on the IELTS and TOEFL. You'll also understand how to use 'otherwise' and 'other than' as expressions. Take a quiz on this lesson at https://www.engvid.com/other-another-otherwise/ .
Vocabulary - sometimes, sometime, some time, always, all ways
http://www.engvid.com Sometimes, some time is all you need to figure out a language problem. But sometime in the future, or maybe it's already happened to you sometime in the past, you won't have that time. So here's a little help with words that sound and look almost the same, but are really different. Take the quiz some time here: http://www.engvid.com/vocabulary-sometimes-always/
Writing - Misplaced Modifiers
http://www.engvid.com "Engvid.com is great for English learners where you can learn many new things about the language." Does that sentence seem OK to you? Well, in this lesson you will find out why it isn't and where the modifying clause should be. Misplaced modifiers are a common problem in writing and after this lesson, should be a problem of the past. Test your writing skill with the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/writing-misplaced-modifiers/ TRANSCRIPT: Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. My name's Adam. Today's lesson is a little bit more advanced. It's actually very useful for native English speakers as well, not only ESL learners. Today we're talking about misplaced modifiers. Now, this is a very important grammar point, plus it's also very, very important for those of you who need to do English writing. Okay? This is a very common mistake that people will see in all kinds of writing. It could be very, very embarrassing sometimes because... You'll understand in a minute why. But I'll show you the different types and we'll figure out a way to fix it as much as we can. So, first of all, what is a "modifier"? A modifier is anything in a sentence, it could be an adjective or an adverb, a clause, a phrase, anything that modifies something else in the sentence. What does "modify" mean? Means to change, change the meaning of, change the idea of. Okay? So, for example: if you say: "A car", you have an idea of a car. You say: "A red car", you have a different idea of the car probably. So "red" modifies "car". Okay, so what we're looking at is misplaced modifiers. We have misplaced modifiers, dangling modifiers, squinting modifiers. Don't worry about the technical words. Worry about what is actually happening here. So I'm going to start with these examples, and we'll look at a few others in a minute. So look at these two sentences: "I call only my mother when I'm sick." "I only call my mother when I'm sick." Now, this word: "only" is the modifier we're looking at. It is very, very often misplaced; people don't realize that this word doesn't necessarily go where it should go half the time. It's amazing how many people misplace it. So what does this sentence mean: "I call only my mother when I'm sick"? It means: when I'm sick, I don't call my friends, I don't call my girlfriend or boyfriend, I don't call my aunt or uncle; only my mother. I'm sick: "Mom, come make me some soup, please." You have to be polite, of course. "I only call my mother when I'm sick." It means: when I'm healthy, I don't call her. I never speak to her, only when I'm sick do I call her. She gets very angry at me, she thinks I'm using her. But according to this sentence, I am, because I only call her when I'm sick. So you understand what this word does to the sentence. Okay? Very, very important where you place it to know which word it's going to modify. The secret about modifiers: place them close to the word you're trying to modify. But that also doesn't always work. "People who whistle quickly become annoying." Now, you're thinking: "This sentence looks okay." The problem is: what does it mean? Is it: "People who whistle quickly, become annoying"? Or: "People who whistle, quickly become annoying"? Which one do you mean? All people who whistle or just people who whistle quickly? I don't think I should whistle, I'll probably blow the mic, but very fast whistling. Right? So, this is called a squinting modifier; you're not sure which word the modifier is going with. How can I fix this? You can probably cut it into two sentences. "I get quickly annoyed by people who whistle." Or: "People who whistle become annoying quickly." Or just change the location or again, just split it into two different sentences, that's another solution. Here's another one, this is called more... This is more of a dangling modifier: "I went to see a movie last night with my friend, which was really boring." Okay, maybe you understand the sentence. I don't. What was boring, the movie or the going out with the friend? This is called a dangling modifier because I don't actually know what it is modifying. I'm not sure what this "which" is, the situation or the movie. So again, to fix it, just bring it closer to the actual thing. I'm going to assume you're talking about the movie. "I went to see a movie last night which was really boring, with my friend." No, that's not a very good way to fix it either. "I went to see a movie which was really boring last night with my friend." That's much better, it's right next to the thing you're modifying. So you want to put this right here, so it modifies the movie itself. Okay? So here're three different examples of misplaced modifiers. Let's look at a few more. Okay, let's look at a few more examples, and eventually, we'll get to some funny ones that you'll understand why it could be embarrassing.
IELTS Speaking: Improve your fluency with the LASAGNA METHOD
Get confident in your speaking skills for the IELTS. To sound fluent, you must be prepared. And the recipe for success lies in my "Lasagna Method". This lesson will focus specifically on the Speaking Task of the IELTS. I will give you some tips to plan what to say ahead of time, no matter what topic comes up during your test. If you prepare yourself well before test day, you will feel confident and look confident to your interviewer. So watch this video, follow my advice, and get a high score. Test yourself with the quiz: https://www.engvid.com/ielts-speaking-lasagna-method/ NEXT, watch more videos in the EngVid IELTS Speaking series. It's free to watch and these videos WILL improve your score: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLs_glF4TIn5YL3t2ueJPsyDwpyxSbScJO TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video I'm going to talk about IELTS speaking. So, as normal, I'll speak a little bit faster. For those of you taking the test, you get a little bit of listening practice as well. Even if you're not taking the test, this is also very useful for you if you want to practice your speaking skills in English. Okay? So, we're going to talk about IELTS speaking generally. Okay? I'm not going to talk about any of the three parts in specific. I want to talk about fluency in specific. Fluency is one of the categories that you will be graded on. The interviewer is listening for your fluency skills when deciding to give you the band out of nine. Okay? Now, first of all, what does it mean...? What does "fluency" mean? Okay? Fluency has a few things to consider within it. First, how quick you respond; a fast response. So when the question is asked to you, when the interviewer asks you a question in part one or part three, they're looking to find out... They're paying attention to how quickly you answer back. If you receive the question and you need to think about the question, try to translate the question in your mind, then you need to try to build up an answer before you start speaking - the more time you take to do this, the less fluent you are in English. Okay? The graders want to make sure you understood the question quickly, you're ready to start speaking quickly; that's part of fluency. Another thing: Connected sentences. They want to make sure that your sentences flow from one to the next; you're not just throwing out ideas. "I like it. It's good. I did it five times." Like, all of these sentences individually are not part of fluency. That means you're just throwing out ideas, but fluency is also how... The flow. The flow of your speech. And, again, especially in parts one and three when they're asking a question, but also in parts two where you need to construct the answer completely. They're listening for your thinking sounds, so: "Um... Well, uh... Um... If I... Um... Mm... " All of these thinking sounds means you're having trouble with the language, means: Your fluency is not very high, your score is going down. Okay? Try to minimize or even completely eliminate thinking sounds from your speech; they don't help you. Now, if you need some time to think about what to say, you could say: "Well, when I think about this situation, what I usually think about is..." and then get into your answer. You say: "Well, um... Well, usually it's like this..." Well, that doesn't work. That's not fluency. That means you're having problems with the language. Okay? So cut out the thinking sounds: "Ah, erm, er", etc. Now, extend - this is probably the most important part of fluency. Do not give one-word answers to any question. -"Do you like swimming?" -"Yes." -"Okay. Why do you like swimming?" -"It's wet." That doesn't work. That's not an answer, even, right? They want full sentences, they want a few sentences, and they want to have a few ideas all strung together coherently and with nice flow. Now, with all these things in mind, what do most students have the most problems with when it comes to the actual speaking test of the IELTS? The most common problem is what to talk about; they just don't have ideas. Right? So here is my major tip, my major piece of advice to you when it comes to preparing for the speaking section of the IELTS test: Create an idea bank. Okay? This is what I call this exercise. In... Essentially, what this means is: Do your thinking before the test. Don't be in the test room, don't be sitting in front of the interviewer and trying to think about all these ideas that they're asking you about, because sometimes they're going to ask you about things that you have... You just don't think about; you don't really care about. […]
English Vocabulary for EXERCISING at the GYM
Worried about that "spare tire" or "muffin top" people are pointing at? No, we don't mean car parts or baked goods. It's time to get in shape, so head to the gym! In this lesson I'll help you get "shredded" without having to worry about English. You will learn some common words and expressions about exercising, fitness, and gym equipment. You will also learn how to explain your fitness goals to a personal trainer. Ready? Let's get "jacked". http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-exercise-gym/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about getting you in shape. What does that mean? It means going to the gym and exercising, and all the vocabulary you need to do that well. If you go to the gym and you need to speak to a personal trainer or a fitness coach, he or she will use these words to help you get a very nice body. So let's start with these. First of all, most people who go to the gym want to "get in shape". It doesn't mean they want to become square or a circle or a triangle. It means they want to have a good body, and also to feel healthy. They want to breathe easier, they want to be able to walk or run for a longer time, they want to be able to feel good about their physical condition. Now, a lot of people also go to the gym because they want these things. They want to be "fit". "Fit" basically means healthy. Some people want to get "toned". They want some lines here and there; they don't want to be round. They want more lines, a little bit more showing muscles; a little bit less showing fat. Some people want to get "cut". Now, "cut" means that you see all the lines where all the muscles are or should be, because you've worked out a lot. You have very little fat, more muscle. Now, some people want to get "shredded". "Shredded" means like very, very, very cut. So if you think, for example, Brad Pitt, in the movie Fight Club, he was shredded. Very little fat, all muscle, and cut in all the right places. Then if you say someone is "jacked", then you think of Arnold Schwarzenegger. Before he was a politician, a little bit before he was an actor, he was a bodybuilder. He was "jacked"; he had huge muscles everywhere. "Ripped" and "shredded" basically mean the same thing. These are all slang words for "toned", basically. And everybody wants like a "six-pack abs". They want one, two, three, four, five, six. You have to work very hard for that. You have to get rid of a lot of fat to get all the muscles to show up. Keep in mind: all of these things, they're more about a lifestyle than about exercising, but you have to exercise to get all these things. Okay, so what can you do to exercise? You can "work out". One thing you can do, you can walk around your house every day after dinner and, you know, work your digestive system. All the food you ate goes to the right places, everything okay. But you can also "work out", means you go to the "gym" where they have all the weights, all the machines, you can exercise. "Work out", exercise. Why? Because you want to get rid of your "spare tire". Now, this happens a lot more to men, but a spare tire. So, you know in your car if you have a flat tire, in the back, you have a spare tire? So imagine carrying that spare tire around your stomach. You're skinny, skinny, skinny, fat, skinny, skinny, skinny, skinny. That's your spare tire. Now, men also have "love handles", you can grab them on the side and you can play with them. I won't explain too much where the "love handle" term comes from, but that's what they're called. Women, on the other hand, it's called a "muffin top". Because you know when you have a muffin, there's the paper, and then-whoop-it comes out? So if you're wearing really tight jeans and then a little bit sticks out, that's your muffin top. So, you go to the gym, you want to get rid of all these things. Some people want to "bulk up", means they want to get bigger. They want to "build muscle". Muscle. Some people want to "slim down", means they want to get thinner. They want to "burn fat". So you build muscle, you burn fat. Ideally, you do both at the same time. And, of course, more important than all of this: diet. You have to stop eating McDonalds, you have to stop eating pizza, you have to stop eating bad food if you want to get any of these things. Now, what can you do at the gym? You can do "weights". "Weights" means like actual physical, heavy things that you lift, etc., you do all kinds of things with them. Or you could do "cardio". "Cardio" is short for "cardiovascular", it means working the lungs, working the inside, getting the body, the blood to flow properly, getting your air passages to open and close properly. One thing you can do for cardio is "aerobics", so you know, like jumping jacks, and all that stuff, and running, and all these things, exercises on the floor. You do only with your body and a lot of movement to get the inside to burn fat.
LOOK at these PHRASAL VERBS with "look"
In this lesson, you will learn some common phrasal verbs using the verb LOOK. Do you often have to LOOK UP phrasal verbs and expressions? Do others LOOK DOWN on you when you don't understand? After this lesson, things will start to LOOK UP. Then, when someone yells "LOOK OUT!", you'll know to be careful. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-look/ TRANSCRIPT' Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson, again, everybody's favourite, phrasal verbs. We're going to look at phrasal verbs with "look". Again, what is a phrasal verb? It's a verb with a preposition combination to get usually very different meanings. Now, if you're thinking: "Oh my god. Too many of these phrasal verbs. You're doing too many of these lessons", things are starting to look up. I'm getting near the end. There's a limit to how many of these I can do, so don't worry; things are looking up. Okay. Let's start with "up". "Look up". A few meanings. There's the literal meaning, look up. Look up at the sky; look up, see that plane flying. No problem. You can also "look up". If any of these words give you difficulty and you're not sure what I'm saying or you didn't catch what I'm saying, look them up in the dictionary or look them up online. Go to Google or go to wherever you go, the dictionary, punch in the word, and you will get the meaning of this word. Now, what I said before: "Things are looking up." If something is starting to look up, it means it's starting to be more positive. It's starting to look better. Okay? You can be a bit happier about what's coming. So you can look up to the situation changing, or the situation is changing. "Look up to". This is a little bit different. "Look up to" means... Because of the "to", you're getting a bit of a direction of somewhere. Right? So you're looking up to someone. If you look up to someone, means you use them as a role model. They're somebody you want to be like. Okay? So I'll put here just so you get that word. "Role model". So, usually, when you're young as a child, you look up to your parents. You think: "Oh my god. My parents are amazing. I want to be like them." When you get older, we'll leave that to you. "Look down". Now, I'm not saying you're going to look down on your parents, but when you look down on somebody, you're putting them beneath you. Okay? You're making them a little bit inferior. The opposite of inferior - superior. Okay? But if somebody is inferior and if you look down on somebody, means you think they are less than you. They're not as good at their job, they're not as good of a baseball player or whatever sport. They're... You're a better student than they are, so you look down on them. You're thinking: "Not so good." Of course, "look down" by itself is just look down on the ground. "Look over". Okay? Now, if there's a fence here between my house and my neighbour's house, I could look over the fence and see what's going on. But "look over" can also mean just check. Okay? So, for example, I wrote an essay, and before I hand it in to my teacher, I want to give it to my friend to look over the essay and make sure there's no mistakes, make sure I didn't say anything wrong or make any spelling mistakes. I just want him or her to check it. I want him to look it over and check it. "Look in on". Okay? "Look in on" means just keep an eye out for somebody, or a little bit take care of somebody. Right? So, for example, I'm going away on vacation next week. I ask my neighbour to look in on my plants. All he has to come in, open the door, check they're still alive, okay. We'll talk about "look after", it's a little bit similar... You know what? I'll talk about "look after" now. If I have a dog, I can't ask my neighbour to "look in" on my dog. I need more than that. I need my neighbour to "look after" my dog. "Look after" means take care of. Okay? "Look through" is also a little bit similar to "look over", but a little bit more detailed. "Look through" is inspect, look for detailed things. So I want you to look through my essay, and find this or that particular thing. "Look over", very quickly skim it; look for any problems. "Look through", I want you to go in detail and find everything. Now, "look through" can also be a physical action. For example, the police, if they're trying to find a criminal, they will go... If they have a suspect, they will go to his or her house, they will look through their garbage to find any clothes. So, "look through" means inspect, look for something specific. Okay. So, "look after", take care. "Look into". "Look into" means investigate. So there's a problem at my office, we're not... Our sales are not very high; we're losing money somewhere. I'm going to "look into" the problem. I'm going to find out what's going on. Okay? So, "look into", investigate.
The Passive: When, why, and how to use it
Why should you use the passive in English? You know how to construct the passive form, but then you wonder, "why should I use this?" You use the passive to sound more interesting, impress readers (especially those grumpy IELTS and TOEFL essay graders), and sometimes because there is no other option. This lesson will tell you when, why, and how to use the passive effectively. Test yourself with the quiz: https://www.engvid.com/the-passive-when-why-and-how-to-use-it/
Cooking Vocabulary in English - chop, grill, saute, boil, slice...
http://www.engvid.com Love to eat? Share your recipes and give advice to those who are lost in the kitchen. In this lesson we will look at some basic cooking vocabulary that might make food a new experience for you and your friends and family. You'll learn words like chop, boil, saute, grill, slice, and more. Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/cooking-vocabulary/ TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a very interesting one. It's one of my favourites. Why? Because I love to eat. Actually, a long time ago, before I was a teacher, before I did any of that, I went to culinary school. "Culinary" -- I learned how to cook. I was going to be a chef. But then I worked at a restaurant, actually I worked in a few restaurants and I decided: "Nope, I don't want to be a chef anymore." But I still like to cook, I still love to eat. So some of my students were asking me for kitchen vocab, some culinary cooking vocab. First, let's start with this question: "What's cookin'?" Now, it could mean: "Ah, something smells good. What's cookin'?" Means what are you making, what dish are you making? But sometimes, people will ask this as slang: "What's cookin?" means: "What's happening? How are things? How are you?" Just so you know. A good idiom to recognize. So we're looking at kitchen vocab. When we're talking about cooking, we're talking about culinary arts. Okay? So you ever hear this expression: "culinary" means about cooking, about food. Now, before I get into these actions, some of these actions that you will use while you are cooking, it's a moral imperative that I spend a minute about these two words. What does "moral imperative" mean? It means that to be a good person, I must tell you something about these words. First: "a chef", a chef is a person who studied cooking, went to school and studied, has worked in many restaurants, and has practiced for a long time in his art, his cooking skills. This person - or her -, this person probably has a diploma and is usually the boss of a kitchen in a restaurant somewhere. Now, "a cook" is a person who is just starting to cook or somebody who just makes food at home. Anybody can be a cook. So "cook" could be a noun, the person, or: "to cook", verb, to prepare dishes. Now, very, very, very important and I must stress this: "cook", the pronunciation of this word is very important. It's: "uh", "uh", "uhk". "Cook", okay? "Cook". Sounds like, it rhymes with: "look" or: "took" or: "book". Okay? "Book", "took", "look", "cook". It does not, not rhyme with: "rock" or: "sock" or: "lock". Okay? Not. So if somebody says to you: "Oh, I'm a good cock." Say: "I'm happy for you. Bye-bye." Okay? Because they're talking about something else completely. "Cook", be very careful about this word. Okay, let's get started. Let's say you're on the internet, you want to look for some new dishes, you want to surprise your family with a nice new meal from a different country maybe. You get on the internet and you find a "recipe", recipe for a nice dish. But, you're not sure about how to make it because you don't recognize some of these actions. "Pot", "pan", all of these things you can understand. My little stove here, and my little oven here, I'm sure you can understand. Let's look at the actions. "To saute", now this word actually comes from the French, but we use it in English as well. "To saute" means in a skillet or in a pan, to cook lightly. So you have your pan, your flat pan, put a little bit of oil, put in your onions on the stove, and you saute, you flip, you cook it a little bit to a little bit brown, and then you put other things in it or you add it to other things. "Boil/simmer", these are very similar actions. "Boil", you put something in a pot, like something like this and high, full of water. You put the heat very, very high. So boiling is very high heat, big bubbles, and very fast moving. "Bluh, bluh, bluh, bluh, bluh." Right? Like very boiling, so the bubbles go very fast and very high. "Simmer" means lower heat, small bubbles moving slowly. Okay? So when you're making a nice soup or a stew, first you get everything boiling, and then you reduce the heat and let it simmer for like an hour; get all the flavours to blend together really nicely. Then you have: "broil/roast". So "broil" and "roast", we're using the oven. If you want to cook something like very quickly and get the top like very crispy, you broil. "Broil" means heat from the top, so the heat is going like this on to the food. "Roast" means the heat is coming from the bottom and the sides, so it cooks the inside and takes a little bit longer. Okay. "Grill". "Grill", like for example: when you barbeque. When you're barbequing, you are grilling. You have the lines of the grill, you put your steak on it, then you flip it, etcetera. That's grilling, usually with fire, coals, lines.
10 HOLD Phrasal Verbs: hold up, hold to, hold out...
http://www.engvid.com Hold on to your hats! Excitement is on the way. In this English lesson, we'll go over some uses of "hold + prepositions" so you know when to grab something, or just wait (like on the phone). Do you know when to 'hold on', and when to 'hold back'? What do you do in a 'hold up'? You'll learn these phrases and many others. Once you do, take the quiz at http://www.engvid.com/10-hold-phrasal-verbs/ to check if you really understand them. TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is, again, one of your favourites, phrasal verbs; everybody's favourites because they're so much fun and easy to understand. Today we're going to look at phrasal verbs with "hold". Okay? We have 10 of them. And again, what is a phrasal verb? Just to review. It is a verb, in this case: "hold", plus a preposition, when put together, have completely different meanings than the two words by themselves. So, let's start. We have: "hold on". Now, many of you might hear this one when you call somebody on the phone and you say: -"Hi, may I speak with Joe?" -"Oh, yeah, I'll get him. Hold on." What does "hold on" mean? Means wait. "Hold on" also means grab. So if you're on the bus and you see like it's a bit shaky, you hold on to the bar so you don't fall. "Hold on", wait; "hold on", grab. Next, we have: "hold off". Now, "hold off" can also mean wait. But whereas "hold on" means I'm telling you to wait, usually "hold off" means you're waiting for something else to finish. Right? So I will hold off giving you the quiz until I finish explaining everything. It's a little bit like postpone as well. It can also means... It could also mean - sorry - delay. So, we will hold off the election until everybody has a chance to find out who the candidates are. Okay? So we will hold off, we will postpone it or delay it. "Hold up". "Hold up" also means delay, to delay something. So the party was held up because not enough people came because of the bad weather. Okay? Or the concert was held up because the singer was a little bit sick, couldn't make it on to the stage for whatever reason. A completely different meaning of "hold up" is: "Stick 'em up. This is a hold up." A robbery. Okay? But what you have to remember is this could also be a noun, a one-word noun. In that case, it's a robbery. The bank robbers walked into the bank and held up the tellers to get their money. "Hold out". "Hold out" also means wait, but in a very different context. If you're holding out for something better, it means you're waiting for a better offer, or a better situation, or anything better to come along. So, for example: in sports, you will hear this word often. A professional hockey player is coming to the end of his... coming to the end of his contract. The team wants to sign him to a new contract, but he's not. He's not signing. Why? He wants more money. They say: "Okay. We're not going to give you more money". He'll say: "Okay, I'll wait". So he is holding out for a better offer. This could also be a noun, a "holdout". We would say the person is a holdout for a better contract. "Hold over". "Hold over" also means to delay. The exhibition was held over until next week because of technical difficulties. The lights weren't working or there was a problem with the electricity, so the exhibition was held over to the next week. "Hold against". Also, two meanings. I can hold the pen against my chest. I could hold the baby against my heart, for example. But "hold against" - completely different meaning - means to have a grudge. Now, I'm not sure if you guys know what "grudge" means. A grudge means when you... When somebody did something bad to you and you just can't forgive them. You will always remember that bad thing they did and you will always hold it against them. Every time they want to speak to you, you're... In the back of your mind is that bad thing they did. You're always remembering; you're never forgetting, you're never forgiving. So you hold it against them all the time. They want to help you, you don't trust them. You hold it against them that they did something bad to you in the past. "Hold onto", again two meanings. Similar to "hold on", hold on to something, "hold onto" your seats, we're going to go very fast. So when you go to a movie, for example, say: "Hold onto your seats, this is going to be an exciting ride", or an exciting movie, or whatever. "Hold onto" also means keep. Hold onto your job, basically. Don't lose your job; hold onto it. Hold onto your friends. Never lose your friends; not a good idea.
Learn English Grammar: EACH OTHER & ONE ANOTHER
http://www.engvid.com Is there a difference between 'EACH OTHER' and 'ONE ANOTHER'? These are both very useful expressions you can use when you are speaking or writing English. In this advanced English grammar lesson, you will learn how to use these expressions, and also learn about the broader topics of reciprocal pronouns and reflexive pronouns. Watch the video now to understand the differences between these expressions, so that you can use them correctly. If you watch engVid lessons with a friend, you can test each other's understanding. Students studying alone can test themselves at http://www.engvid.com/learn-english-grammar-each-other-one-another/ . TRANSCRIPT Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is about reciprocal nouns. This is something that gives people trouble often it seems, so I'm here to explain it a little bit to show you when to use it, when not to use it. First of all, what does this word mean: "reciprocal"? "To reciprocate"-that's the verb-"to reciprocate" means to return an action. So I do something for you, you do something for me. The action is reciprocal; goes one way, goes the other way. Doesn't have to be the same action, but it's some sort of... Returning a favour basically or returning help. So we can use: "each other" or "one another" to show a reciprocal action. These are called reciprocal pronouns. Okay? "Each" is a pronoun, "one" is a pronoun, "another" is a pronoun. These are in groups, they are reciprocal pronouns. Now, quite often, people mix these... They mix the use of this with "themselves". Okay? "Themselves" is not a reciprocal pronoun. "Themselves" is called a reflexive pronoun. I won't get into too much detail about reflexive here, but a "reflexive pronoun" is a pronoun when you have the subject acting on the object, and the object is the same as the subject. So: "I hit myself." I am the subject, I am also the object. I hit myself, it's reflecting back to me. Reciprocal, there's always somebody else or other people involved besides myself. Okay? Besides me. "Tom and Jerry hated each other." Now, I'm not sure how old some of you are. I know I'm maybe giving away my age a little bit, but Tom and Jerry were very popular cartoon characters when I was a kid. Tom... Tom was the cat I believe, Jerry was the mouse, and they always used to hate each other. Near the end, when I got older, they became friends; it was very disappointing. It was better when they hated each other and always used to do bad things to each other because they were... It was kind of funny. "Tom and Jerry hated each other." Tom hated Jerry, Jerry hated Tom; the feeling was reciprocal. Okay? Here, it's not an action, it's a feeling, but we can use it in the same way. We use it like an action verb. "Tom and Jerry hated one another." Basically, the meaning is the same. Now, there's an argument between grammarians, people who study grammar, who think that "each other" should only involve two characters, "one another" should involve more than two characters. Realistically though, they're interchangeable; you can use one or the other. Everybody will get the exact same meaning, regardless which one you use. Okay? Now: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves." Does this mean the same as these two? No, it does not. If we say: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves." means Tom hated Tom, Jerry hated Jerry. No relation between the two. Tom hated himself, Jerry hated himself. Okay? So this is not a reciprocal action; this is a reflexive. Now, another situation we have is with the apostrophe. Okay? "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at each other's weddings." "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at one another's weddings." "Wedding", I'm going to have to look that one up. "Each other's weddings" though for sure. It basically means the same idea. One to you, one back to me; reciprocal actions. And you can use it. Now, some people put these together, especially language learners who are a little bit new to the language, they say: "Each other". Now, keep in mind, a native speaker will take the "ch" sound with the "o" and mix it - "eachother", but they are two separate words, you can't mix them. And some people also think you can put the apostrophe after the "s", this is also not the case because we're talking about one person to one person, so the "s" always comes... The apostrophe-sorry-always comes before the "s" to show possession. Okay? It's a little bit confusing, but very useful to know how to use these. Actions going two-way. If you're not sure, go to www.engvid.com, there'll be a quiz there where you can try out these examples. And if you have any questions, please ask; I'll be very happy to answer them. See you again.
TOEFL Writing – Task 1
Need to get a high score on your TOEFL test? Confused about the Integrated Writing assignment? I'll give you my tips and strategies to succeed in this section of the TOEFL iBT. I will first explain the structure of this writing task. You will then learn how to approach the reading and listening sections, how to take notes, and finally, how to write a summary that will get you a high score. Practice this method as much as you can before writing your TOEFL exam and you WILL succeed. Take the quiz to make sure you understood the lesson: http://www.engvid.com/toefl-writing-task-1/ More TOEFL tips and practice: http://www.goodlucktoefl.com/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is for those of you who will be taking the TOEFL test. And, as usual, when I do a lesson about the English tests, I will speak at a more natural pace, a little bit faster than usual. If you're a beginner, don't worry, you can still listen and still practice your listening skills, and get some vocabulary from the lesson. But it will be a little bit faster, perhaps a little bit more difficult. Let's begin. So, we're looking at the TOEFL task 1, the writing section. This is the integrated task. I'll put it this way. Now, what does that mean by "integrated"? It means they're giving you... Giving you a reading section, they're giving you a listening section, and they're wanting you to write. So you're practicing three skills in one task. Okay? Not easy, but not that difficult if you practice it. So I'm going to give you four tips on how to approach this section of the test. Now, for those of you who have done the practice test, or have taken an actual TOEFL test, or are preparing for one, you know that what will happen is you will be given a reading section-okay?-you will be given three minutes to read it and prepare whatever notes you need, then... This will be on the computer screen. Then it will disappear, then you will hear a lecture that is related somehow to what you read. That will go on for about a minute or two, and then it will stop. Then, you will be given the question. Basically, the question is going to tell you how to relate the listening to the reading. Okay? It is crucial that you take notes, both for the reading and the listening. You can't try to keep all of this in your head. It will not help you when you... When you have to start writing. You will have 20 minutes to write. You should aim for about 200 words, let's say. That should be enough to convey all of the information that they're asking. What you have to remember is right away, they're... You're going to have to do one of two things. You're either going to have to counter. You have to show how the listening, the lecture counters or goes against what was written in the passage, or how the listening supports what was written in the passage. Okay? It's going to be one of those two things. So, as soon as the listening starts, you have to understand right away: Are you going to be countering? Are you going to be supporting? You don't need to wait for the question. It should be very obvious to you, as soon as the lecturer starts to give the lecture: What is he doing, or what is she doing? Is she going against the reading, or is she giving support to the reading? Or is she giving information that draws on information from here that they work together? So counter or support, identify it right away, and then you know how to set up your notes. So, here, I showed you a very basic way of taking your notes. Take out with the reading first, obviously, you're going to have three minutes. Skim the reading. What does that mean? It means look through it pretty quickly. Don't read every word; you don't need to. Although the reading disappears from the screen, it does come back. When the listening is finished and they give you your question and the timer starts, the reading comes back. If you need to go back and get some more information, you can do that. It's there. So, of course, that means you have to concentrate very hard on the listening. You only hear it once, it doesn't come back. If you didn't get any information, you're out of luck. So, set up your notes like this. Put your reading here. Make sure you get your first point with the example, your second point with the example, your third point with the example. Okay? Once this is set up, the listening becomes easier, because now you're just going to be matching points. So this point, what was said for that point? What was said for this point is going to be said here. What was said for this point is going to be said here. Usually, there will be no more than three. Sometimes it'll just be two. Rarely will you have four, but usually three is the right number. So, look for three points here with their examples, look for... Listen for the three points here that basically correspond.
How to increase your vocabulary
http://www.engvid.com Here are some great tips for remembering your vocabulary and learning new words. This lesson will show you how to learn more than one new word at a time and how to practice learning and remembering words that will improve all areas of your English quickly. Watch the video, then take the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/how-to-increase-your-vocabulary/
7 colorful English idioms
http://www.engvid.com Do you want to develop a colourful vocabulary? Learn the meanings of these seven phrases, and you can start using them in your everyday life. I chose these examples of idioms because of how useful they are at home, in the workplace, and at school. These expressions are commonly used in spoken English. Watch this lesson, and add some decoration to your English! Take the quiz here: http://www.engvid.com/7-colorful-english-idioms/ Idiom list: see through rose-tinted glasses give someone the green light with flying colors tickled pink paint the town red blue-collared / white-collared see things in black and white TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to engVid. My name's Adam. Nice to see you again. Today's lesson is about idioms. Everybody loves to learn new idioms because they're used every day. Sometimes they're a little bit hard to understand. Today, we're looking at colourful idioms, idioms that use colour in their expression. Before I begin, "colourful", you'll notice I used "u". I'm Canadian, we use the "u" just like the British people. Americans use only the "o", no "u". I used both just to make everybody happy. So just so you understand, it's not a spelling mistake either way. Let's begin. So I have a few idioms here. The thing about idioms, they never mean what the words say; you have to actually understand what the idiom means and how to use it. So, if someone sees the world or sees a situation "through rose-tinted glasses". "Glasses" are glasses you wear on your head. "Rose-tinted", there's a little bit of a pink shade on the glass. So you're seeing the world a little bit pinkish, like the colour of the rose. That means you're very optimistic. Even in a bad situation, you're going to see everything as good. You're seeing the world through rose-tinted glasses. Right? You work at a company and they're about to layoff half of the staff; half of the people are going home, no more job. And you think: "Oh, this is a great opportunity for me to find a new job and get a... advance my career." So I am seeing the situation through rose-tinted glasses. I don't see the bad economy, I don't see the fact that I'm 55 years old and I don't have any skills except for what I do in my job, but I will be okay. "Rose-tinted glasses". "Give someone the green light." You often hear this about governments giving the army the green light to attack. "To give the green light", to give permission. Okay? Go ahead, like a green light in traffic. You see the green light, press the gas, you go. So, for example: The... excuse me. The board of directors gave the CEO the green light to layoff half his staff, even the ones wearing rose-tinted glasses. Okay? So everybody's going home; no more work. "With flying colors", we always add this expression to the end of an event or action. So, for example: "He passed his interview with flying colours." With flying colours means very, very successful; he did very, very well. He went to a job interview, he passed with flying colours. He got offered the job. Okay? If you're "tickled pink", means you're very, very happy. Like tickled, tickle, funny - right? You're tickled pink, you get all pink in the face, you're very happy. So, Tom's grandfather was very... was tickled pink when he found out that Tom and his wife were pregnant. Now, I say: "Tom and his wife were pregnant," because it's common for couples to think of themselves as pregnant, even though it's only the woman, of course. "Paint the town red." This is a very good expression. You're studying for your English exams. Okay? You're very hard... studying very hard, very hard, very hard. You finish your exams, you're free. This weekend, you're going to go paint the town red, means you're going to go party. You're going to have a very good time, you're going to spend all night drinking, and partying, and clubs, and dancing, and people. Have a very good time, you're going to paint the town red; do everything. "Blue-collared worker/white-collared worker". This might be a very common expression for you. "Blue-collared". So, first of all, a collar, if you have a shirt with a tie let's say or no tie. This is the collar-sorry about the tapping-you have a collar. If it's blue, means you're working in a factory or a garage; you're a mechanic or you're working in some skilled job. If you're a white-collared worker, if the colour of your collar is white, means you're working in an office, you're some kind of professional. Okay?
23 Phrasal Verbs with COME: come across, come around, come up with...
Have you ever come across some phrasal verbs that use the verb "come"? They are often used by native English speakers to express many different things, from disbelief to creating something or finding something. In this lesson, I will teach you 23 phrasal verbs that use "come", like "come across", "come out", "come in", and more. So come on. Let's start! Take the quiz: https://www.engvid.com/23-come-phrasal-verbs/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's lesson we're going to look at another phrasal verb using the verb "come". Now, again, what are phrasals? Phrasals are a verb and a preposition that together can have many different meanings apart from the words themselves. Now, I know that there are many phrasal verbs with the verb "come", but I've only chosen these to... These are the most common ones we're going to look at today. If there are other ones that are not on the list, by all means, please put them in the forum on www.engvid.com in the forum section if you want to talk about other ones, if you want to ask about other ones, but today we're going to concentrate on these ones here: "come up with" and "come up against"... Actually I should probably just put this here so there's no confusion. "Come up with", "come up against", "come across", "come around", "come out", sometimes "come out with", "come apart", "come on", "come into", "come over", and "come in". So, let's get started. So: "come up with". When you come up with something, means that you either produce it or that you think about it. Okay? So if you come up with a plan, for example, it means, like we had a problem in the office or in the business and we needed to fix it, and I asked all my staff to come up with a plan or come up with an idea, or come up with a solution to try to fix this. So, somebody came up with it, means that they thought about it. They used their imagination, they thought, thought, thought, and they came up with a plan. But you can also use it with other things, not just ideas. So, I have a project but I don't have enough money for this project, so I ask my friend to help me out, maybe talk to some of his wealthy friends, and maybe sell them on the idea. And to my surprise, he came up with the money, means he produced it or he found it. He was able to get this money. So: "come up with", thought or actual thing, usually money we use it with. "Come up with the money", and we would say "the money" more than "a money", obviously. Okay? "Come up against". So: "come up against" means you suddenly face an obstacle or you... Or a struggle, something... Some sort of problem, but usually it's an obstacle. Now, this could be physical. I'm walking along a hiking trail and suddenly there... Or it's not suddenly, but before a tree fell over and blocked the way. So I came up against this tree, and now I have to figure out how to get around or over it, etc. More commonly we talk about this in terms of abstract ideas. So, I am trying to run for President of my country and I thought: "Okay, easy. Everybody loves me. I don't really have much competition." But suddenly the opposition party put in a candidate and I've... I have to come up against him. Basically I have to come up against a worthy opponent and now I have to fight, and I have to struggle to continue on where I'm going. So that's come up against something not good. "Come across", again, there's the literal one, means come across something, so basically move. But again, I'm... Somebody is coming across to my side. But more commonly: "to come across" and we usually use it with "as". If someone comes across as something else, it means he or she appears to be something that maybe he or she is not. Okay? So I met this person the other day, met him for the first time and he really came across as a friendly guy, but then later I found out that he's really not a very nice guy at all. He's a... I can't use the word here on the video, but there's another word for him that he actually is. So he came across as friendly, but in reality, not very friendly. Okay? "Come around" also has a few meanings. One, basically if I want to... Somebody is trying to change my opinion, or I want to change somebody else's opinion, okay? So I persuade this person to think that my position is better, and I convince, and I talk and I talk and I talk, and finally this person thinks: "Yeah, you know what? Maybe you're right." So he came around, he came to my side of the argument. "Come around"-sorry-can also mean if you're passed out and somebody's trying to revive you, they give you some smelling salt or they throw water on your face, and you come around. "Oh. Oh, where am I? Oh, okay, I know where I am." I came around, I regained consciousness, I regained my bearings. Okay, that's "come around".
English Vocabulary: How to talk about the economy
http://www.engvid.com Let's talk business! Today you'll learn vocabulary that will help you to read and speak about the economy. We will look at common words used to discuss economic matters, such as GDP, stagnation, fiscal, and more. These words and expressions will help you read financial news articles and follow economic reports on television and online. After the lesson, take the quiz and try to practice these words by discussing economic matters in English with your co-workers and friends. Feel free to ask me questions in the comments section on engVid. http://www.engvid.com/english-vocabulary-how-to-talk-about-the-economy/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson, we're going to look at business English. We're going to talk about the economy. Now, we're not going to get into too much detail. We're not going to get into economic theories, etc. What we're going to look at is some vocabulary that will help you read financial articles and newspapers, or online, or watch financial broadcasts on TV; CNN, Money Matters, etc., things like that. So, we're going to look at all these words. We're going to start with "GDP" because everything somehow relates to "GDP - gross domestic product". What is this? This is the total value, the total monetary value of goods and services produced within a country. So everything that the country produces from toilet paper to airplanes, and services from massage to heart surgery, all the money that's made from these goods and services together adds up to the GDP. So, when we're talking about GDP, we're going to refer back to this expression when we're talking about some of these other words. So, first, let's look at "fiscal". "Fiscal" basically means anything to do with money, anything to do with financial matters, especially when we're talking about taxes. Okay? So, when... The most common thing you'll hear is "fiscal year". So when we're talking about a company's fiscal year, we're talking about it's the beginning of its tax year to the end of its tax year. In some countries, everybody matches this to January to December; in other countries, you're allowed... Your fiscal year starts when you start your business, and then one year later is the end of your fiscal year. It's easier to match it to the calendar year, but... A "quarter". Now, you're going to always hear about prices, and stocks, and values going up or down over the last quarter or over the last two quarters. What is a "quarter"? It's basically three months. So if you're talking about the first quarter of the year, you're talking about January, February, March. That's your first quarter. Your next three months, second quarter. Four quarters makes one year. "Currency". I think everybody knows this word, but just in case, this is the money that is used in a country or a region. This is the monetary value that is used for exchanges, trades, investments, etc. In Canada, we use the Canadian dollar. In the U.S., they use the American dollar. Euro in Europe, etc. A "budget". A "budget" or "to budget", it can be a noun or a verb, means to make a plan on how to spend a certain amount of money. So, for example, a government has this much money that they need to spend, or they have a plan that they want to spend this much money. Now, they want to spend a million dollars. I'm being very simple, here; I'm not going to get into big numbers. They need to spend a million dollars to provide all the services that they need and to buy all the materials that they need to import, etc. If they are running on a deficit, that means that they need to spend more money than they have. They have to spend on things to bring in or to run the country, but they don't have. So if I need to spend a million dollars but I only make the revenues of the country are only $900,000, then they will run on $100,000 deficit. Okay? "Surplus" is the opposite. "Surplus" is when the government or any company, you don't have to apply this to a government, when you have more money than you need for the budget. So if I need to spend a million dollars over the next year, but I have a million and a half, then I have half a million dollar surplus, which is always a good thing. "Inflation/deflation". "Inflation" is when prices of goods and services go up, but wages stay the same. So, basically, the purchase power of the individual goes down. You have the same amount of money, but you can buy fewer things or you can hire fewer people to do to have services for you. "Deflation" is the opposite. That's when prices go down, and the value of your dollar or your currency goes up. Both situations are not good.
Phrasal Verbs with PASS: pass up, pass away, pass out...
Don't pass up this opportunity to increase your vocabulary! In this lesson, we will look at common phrasal verbs using the verb "pass". You will learn how to reply politely if you hear someone has "passed away". You will also be prepared if someone says they will "pass by" your house soon. Do you know the difference between "pass out", "pass over", and "pass around"? Watch this lesson on useful English phrasal verbs to find out! http://www.engvid.com/phrasal-verbs-pass/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is phrasal verbs. Surprise, surprise. Today, we're looking at the phrasal verbs used with "pass". Okay? So once again, what is a phrasal verb? It's a verb and a preposition that together can have the literal meaning of the two words, like what the two words actually mean, plus other meanings that are a little bit unexpected. We're going to look at "pass up". Sometimes it's "pass up on" something. "Pass on", "pass over", "pass through", "pass by", "pass down", "pass away", "pass out", "pass off", "pass around". Notice how when I have prepositions that begin with vowels, like A, O, O, etc., it sounds like one word. "Pass away", "pass out". Just make sure you understand it's a verb and a preposition. So, let's start. "Pass up". When you pass up on something, for example, or you pass up an opportunity, it means you let it go. You don't grab it, you don't catch it. An opportunity comes, and you pass up on it. It means you don't really necessarily want to take part of it. For example, in a job. The company has an opening for a manager, and my friends or my colleagues say to me: "You should apply for this position." And I... I'm not really in the mood right now, I want to do other things, so I pass up on that opportunity. Okay? So let it go. And of course, there's the literal meaning. You are standing on a ladder, you are painting the ceiling, and you need a... Another paintbrush, so I grab one and I pass it up to you. Okay. "Pass on" has a few meanings. One is a soft way to say die. So: -"Oh, how's your grandfather?" -"Oh, I'm afraid he passed on a few weeks ago." Pass on: died. "Pass on" also means pass information, or move, or give, or transfer information. So I... I say to you... You're... You're my staff, I say: "Okay. Here's the new rules for this situation. Pass it on to everybody in the office." It means give it, pass it to everybody. Okay? "Pass on" is also a little bit similar to "pass up", but it's more with specific things. Okay? So for example, you invite me to dinner, and you make a nice roast pig, or something like that. Very delicious. But, I'm a vegetarian. I don't eat meat. So I pass up on the... On the roast, but I will have the salad, I will have the vegetables. Oh sorry, I will pass on the roast. Not "pass up". I will pass on the roast, thank you, I will take something else. Pass up on an opportunity, pass on something. Say: "No thank you." Okay. "Pass over" means I could just pass over. So, before I passed up, now I'm passing over. More like sideways. We call it laterally. Okay? I can also pass over, it means have a quick look at something. Here's your document, I'll just pass over it. I have a very quick, not detailed look. Okay? Now, we can also use "pass over" to skip something or someone. So, I have some people, and I'm trying to build a basketball team. And I'm thinking: "Hm. Who...? Who are the best players?" So I'll take you, I'll take you, I'll pass over you, and I'll take you, and I'll take you. So this person is passed over. It means I go over them, and I go to the next one. I skip them. "Pass through". If you're just passing through town, it means you're not stopping for very long. You're coming, you're saying hi, you're going. Now, "pass through" also literally means to go through something. So if I'm wearing a very thin shirt, the wind will pass right through it, and basically chill my skin. Chill my bones. "Pass by" also means, like, staying for a very short time. So if I come up to my friend's house, he is not expecting me or she is not expecting me, and I ring the doorbell. They open the door, and I say: "Hi. I was just passing by. I was in the neighborhood." It means I just came for a short visit unexpectedly. Okay? If something passes you by, it's [whizzing noise]. The car, I was driving my car, the... Another car passed by, and just kept going. So to move without stopping. And you can also talk about more general things, like time. Time doesn't wait for anybody. Time just passes by, regardless of what you do.
English Travel Vocabulary: Planning a Trip
http://www.engvid.com Are you going to travel? Make sure you're prepared with the vocabulary you will need for your business trip or vacation. In this lesson, I'll teach you the English vocabulary you must know for travel -- from preparing your travel itinerary and making reservations, to getting your visas and boarding your flight. It is essential that you know this basic English travel vocabulary, because English is an international language. ESL students who are studying abroad will find these words very helpful. Even if you are not travelling to an English-speaking country, as a tourist, you will need to communicate with people at the airport, and at tourist attractions. Watch this lesson, take the quiz, and have a safe trip! http://www.engvid.com/english-travel-vocabulary-planning-a-trip/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome again to www.engvid.com. My name is Adam. Today, I'm talking about a very interesting topic because, for example, in Toronto right now, it's very, very cold. I'm thinking about travelling; I would love to go somewhere hot to get away from this winter. So, when I travel, I have, of course, to make travel arrangements. So here, we have a list of words, a list of things that you must think about before you go on a trip to a different country. We're going to go over each of these. We're going to start with "booking" and "reservation". Now, many people think that this is more or less the same, which it is. To book something or to reserve something means to keep a place, to keep your place. You book a flight, you book a hotel room. Generally speaking, you make a reservation at a restaurant; you make a booking with a travel agency or with a hotel, with accommodations, any type of accommodation. Speaking of, accommodations are hotel, motel, hostel, B&B, bed and breakfast; all kinds of accommodations. Make sure you have a booking before you go, so your place is safe, it's kept for you. When you arrive, it's all good. Next, when you're at your destination, the place you're going to, you might want to "rent" a car. Okay? Sorry, this is accommodation. One thing I wanted to also make sure - "accommodations", without the "s", "accommodation" means something different. Okay? "Accommodations" is where you're going to sleep. And you might want to "rent" a car. You can also "hire" a car. Means the same thing. British people generally use "hire" more, North Americans use "rent" more often. Next, you have to think about your "baggage". Suitcase, luggage, bags, anything you're carrying with you. You might have "check-in baggage". Sorry, I don't know if you can see this guy. "Check-in baggage" and "carry-on baggage". "Check-in baggage" means you give it to the airline, they put it under the plane, you pick it up at your destination. "Carry-on" means you carry on, so you carry it on your shoulder on to the plane. Okay? In your carry-on, you have to be careful, it has to be small. You can't have liquids because of security and all that stuff. So things that you can't put in your carry-on, you must put in your check-in baggage and give to the airline. Next, when you get to the airport, assuming you're flying, you will have to do a few things that concern the word "boarding". Before you board your plane, get on your plane - you will get a boarding pass that lets you pass through security and into the airport. On the boarding pass, you will see your "boarding time", this is when you get on the plane and your "boarding gate", the place in the airport where you're going to get on your plane before takeoff. Okay? We can also use this for a train. You board a train, you get a boarding pass with a boarding time, and generally a boarding platform. Okay? So "boarding", getting on your vehicle, whatever vehicle that might be. You will also generally need to get a "visa" to many countries. Now, a "visa" is something that you use to get into a country, it gives you permission to stay in that country. But be aware: many places, if you're going through another country... So, for example: I'm going to country "C" via country "B". "Via" means by way of or through. So I might need a "transit visa", means I can go there, switch planes and keep going on my journey. But I'm still in another country, I need a transit visa. Excuse me. Also, make sure you're prepared to spend money as soon as you get to your destination. If you're going to a different country, that country will but using a different "currency", type of money. In Canada, we have Canadian dollar. America has American dollar. Okay? For things like that. In Europe, you need the euro. So make sure you have some of the currency before you go, or purchase it at the airport or at the destination you're going to.
IELTS – 3 Reading Strategies
Is the IELTS Reading section very challenging for you? Can't finish all the readings and questions before the time is up? In this lesson, you will learn three approaches to the IELTS Reading section and their pros and cons. The goal of this lesson is to help you finish the test on time without compromising your understanding of the readings. Learn how to read less while answering more questions correctly. After watching, make sure to do the quiz to test your understanding. Good luck on your test! https://www.engvid.com/ielts-3-reading-strategies/ https://www.GoodLuckIELTS.com/ https://www.writetotop.com/ WATCH NEXT IELTS Writing: The 3 Essay Types https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJ-Vyqxn1To TRANSCRIPT Hi again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is about IELTS. As usual, with IELTS lessons, I will be speaking a little bit faster than normal. It's good for your listening practice. But if you're not taking the IELTS, you can still listen and try to follow us as we go through this section. So, let's begin. Today, I'm going to look at the IELTS reading section. I'm going to look at three different approaches to tackling the IELTS reading section. Students always ask me: "What should I do with the reading? How do I do it? How can I finish on time? How can I answer more questions?" Right? So I'm going to give you three approaches, three different ways to try to do the IELTS. Okay? We're going to look at three different ways. They're completely different from each other. The most important thing I want to tell you before we start: you have to know what works for you. Okay? One of these approaches will work for you; the others may not. Practice all three. If you're comfortable with one and it seems to work for you, and your score seems to be getting better, stick with that one and practice that one. Don't try to do all three each time. Figure out which one works, and just practice that one the most. Okay? The most obvious one and the first one we're going to talk about: read the entire passage, and then tackle the questions. Now, a few things to say, good and bad, about this approach. So, you have 20 minutes, let's say, that you're going to start from the first passage, you're going to do about 17 minutes; the second passage, you're going to spend 20 minutes; the last passage, you're going to spend 23, 24, 25 minutes. So, you have to do this very fast. So: can you read the entire passage and do the questions in that timeframe? Okay? That's the question you must ask yourself. Are you a fast reader? Can you comprehend everything you're reading? How is your vocabulary? Things like this. Some people, they must read everything, from beginning to end, and then go to the questions. But they can also keep; they can retain the information they've read, so when they go to the questions, they know where to go back and look for the answers. Now, the good part about this is that you have all the information in your head once you've read the entire passage. The bad part is that you're going to be reading the passage twice. Okay? Or not the whole passage, but you're going to read big chunks of the passage twice. You'll have read it the first time, you'll go to the questions, and then you'll be reading again to find the answers, because you're looking for specific words now. When you get to the questions, sometimes it's only one word difference from what you read in the passage. So, do I recommend this? Yes and no. If you're a fast reader and you can comprehend, then yes, do that. If you're not a fast reader, then no, don't do this. You'll be wasting too much time and reading more than you need to. What I'm going to do with these two approaches is show you how to read less. So you don't need to read the entire passage; you just need to read the areas that contain the answers to the questions. So, the second approach: go straight to the questions. You look at the question. First of all, understand the type of the question. Is it a multiple choice? Is it a fill-in-the-blank, like a summary? Are you looking for like headings for each paragraph? Are you looking for the title? Etc. Figure out what you're looking for, read the question carefully, pick out the keywords in the question or the key idea in the question, and then scan the passage. Don't read the passage. Just quickly look everywhere for where that information ought to be.
English Grammar - Comparing: funner & faster or more fun & more fast?
http://www.engvid.com Is playing video games funner or more fun than studying grammar? Not sure when to use '___er' or 'more ____ than' when comparing things? In this lesson we will look at syllables as a way to choose the faster car, the more beautiful painting, or the more clever phrase. Take the quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/comparing-funner-faster-syllables/ TRANSCRIPT Hi, again. I'm Adam. Welcome to www.engvid.com. Today's lesson is very common I think - a very popular question. I get asked this all the time by students who are learning English: when to use "-er", when to use "more" when we are comparing things, for example with adjectives. When do I say "better", for example, or "happier" or "more expensive"? How do you know which one to use? Okay? So it's very, very simple, okay? We're going to look at syllables. To use "-er", we use -- sorry. We use "-er" with words that have one or two syllables. We use "more" with words that have two or more syllables. Now, before I explain that, what are syllables? "Syllables" are vowel sounds in a word, okay? They're not the number of vowels; they're the number of vowel sounds. But first, what is a "vowel"? Just in case you're not familiar: A, E, I, O, U; these are the vowels in English. Consonants are B, C, D, F, G, and so on. Keep in mind "Y" is a consonant even though it sounds often like a vowel. Okay, so back to syllables. So these are the vowel sounds. So for example, the word "cat". How many vowel sounds are in the word "cat"? One: "ah" -- "cat". Keep in mind -- here's another one-syllable word: "leak". Two vowels, one vowel sound, "leak", "eeee", okay? Can you think of a two-syllable word? How do you feel right now? I bet you feel "happy". I'm sure you feel happy because you're watching www.engvid.com, right? "Happy". The two vowel sounds: "ha", "py" -- sorry. My mistake. "Hap", "py", "ah", "eeee", okay? How about a three-vowel sound word? How about three syllables? "Beautiful". Sorry. I'm not having the best day spelling today. "Beau", "ti", "ful". Three syllables. How about four? "Ex", "cep", "tio", "nal" -- "exceptional". Great. Very good. Okay. One more -- five. Very common word: "International". Can you divide them up into the syllables? Try it. "In", "ter", "na", "tio", "nal" -- "international", five syllables. So now, here we go back. We see one or two syllables or two or more syllables. So now, you're thinking, "Okay, well if I have a two-syllable word, I still don't know which one to use, right?" Well, here is the answer. One or two syllables: If the word ends in "Y" -- I'll put it here. Sorry about the mess. If the word ends in "Y", use "-er". So "happy" -- if you want to compare two things; who's happier? Me or my friend? Then you drop the "Y"; then you put "ier". "Happier". Okay? If the word -- the two-syllable word -- ends in a consonant, okay, then you use "more". Okay? So "gentle" is technically a two-syllable word, but it ends in a vowel, so "gentler". I'll think of an example of a consonant-ending word. Now, there are, of course, exceptions. "Good" does not take "-er" or "more". "Good" becomes "better". "Bad" becomes "worse". "Far" becomes "farther". I'll write this one down. "Far" becomes "farther", so you have the extra addition here. "Much" becomes "more". "Little" becomes "less", okay? Now -- oh, I put it twice. Sorry. Now, "fun" is a one-syllable word, but you will never hear anybody say "funner". Why? Because it sounds like "funnier". So this is an exception. We usually say "more fun". Now here's an example of a two-syllable word that ends in a consonant, so you think "cleverer". Now, some people will say "cleverer", but because of the "r-r" ending, it's a little bit hard to say, so many people will say "more clever". "He is more clever than she is", okay? For example. I still can't think of a word that ends in a consonant. "Feather". No. That's not -- it's a noun; I can't use that. Okay. It'll come to me. I'll put it on the comments on www.engvid.com. And if you want to practice more of these, go to www.engvid.com. There's a quiz there, and you can practice these and come back, and we'll do some more lessons. So don't forget to check out my YouTube page and subscribe. See you then.
Advanced English Grammar: Collective Nouns
http://www.engvid.com ARE the English police looking for you? Or IS the English police looking for you? In this English grammar lesson we will look at how to use collective nouns like STAFF and COUPLE, and of course, police, in the correct way with their matching verbs. Take a quiz on this lesson here: http://www.engvid.com/advanced-english-grammar-collective-nouns/ TRANSCRIPT Hi, welcome again to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. I have another great lesson for you today based on a request... a few requests actually from our www.engvid.com site. Today we're going to look at collective nouns. An example of a collective noun: "staff", "police", "audience", "family". These are nouns that might include individual members or be looked at as a whole unit. Okay? So: "staff" means the total group of employees or it could mean each individual employee. So, now you're thinking: "Okay, well, good. What's the problem?" The problem is: what verb do you use with these nouns? Do you use a singular verb or do you use a plural verb? Okay? So, for example: do you say: "The staff was invited to the BBQ." or do you say: "The staff were invited to the BBQ."? I'm afraid I have to tell you there's actually no rule that decides this. What decides this is you. What do you want to say? What is your intention? Do you want to talk about the individuals or do you want to talk about the group? So, for example, look at this sentence: "My staff consists of young and old alike." "Alike" is basically like "both", both young and old. Now, why am I using the singular? Because here, I'm talking about my entire staff, my whole collection of employees. Right? So I'm probably going to use the singular because I'm talking about the one unit. Here, I could say both; I could say: "My staff", my entire unit of employees or I could talk about all the individual people who work for me were invited to the BBQ. So, again, it's more about what you want to intend... What you want to say, what you intend. Sorry, you don't want to intend anything. Okay? Here's another example: "My family are going to be citizens soon." "My family was invited to a wedding." I have a plural, I have the singular; it depends what you want to say. "My family" - means all the members of my family - "are going to be citizens soon." It makes a bit more sense when you also have the plural here, "are" and "citizens". It sounds a little bit more natural. "My family was invited to the wedding." The Smiths, we... My family is the Smiths, so when the invitation came, the Smiths are cordially invited to attend the wedding of Jack and Jill who last week went up the hill. I'm not sure if you know this little poem. Anyway, so the same thing goes for "police", "audience", "couple", "faculty". Lots of collective nouns. Depends what you want to say. Now, usually... And keep in mind: this is also difficult for native English speakers to decide which one. Keep in mind that usually in the U.S. and Canada, most people will automatically choose the singular: "The staff is", "The police is", again, depending on the situation. In the U.K., they will naturally or usually go for the plural: "The staff are", "The police are". Now, again, let's look at: "police". I'll give you two examples. Somebody was bothering my neighbour. Okay? And like they were like making noise. My neighbour asked the person to leave. The person wouldn't leave, so she called the police. They - the police - they came and removed this person. But, I have to be very careful driving these days because the police is cracking down on texters; people who drive and text. I don't do that, but I've seen them around. Right? So this... You have to be careful which meaning you want to use. Sometimes it'll be very natural, like I would only use the singular here because I'm talking about the whole unit. Here, both okay. Do you want to talk about the individuals? Do you want to talk about the group, the whole group? Now, if you want to be specific, if you very clearly want to show that you're talking about the individuals, add a word: "staff members", "family members", "police officers". If you add these words that show the individuals, you will have absolutely no problem. If I say: "staff members", obviously the verb will be plural because this is now the main subject. And "staff" becomes the adjective, "family" becomes the adjective. Okay? If I say: "police officers", "police" becomes the adjective, this is my subject, and I'm going to use a plural verb. If I want to say one person, one police officer, then of course I'm going to be talking... using the singular. Okay? So, again, very straightforward. Whatever you intend to do, that's what will help you choose the verb. But if you're not sure, go to: www.engvid.com. There's a quiz there where you can get a little bit more practice. And, of course, visit my YouTube site, subscribe if you like. And I'll see you again real soon.
Professional English Vocabulary: Meetings
There's a lot of specialized vocabulary that's used in the office. If you work in an office and want to present yourself professionally, it's especially important that you are able to understand and use these terms. In this Business English video, I'll teach you words that you'll hear in business meetings. We'll go over a show of hands, adjourn, consensus, and other important vocabulary. There's a lot on the agenda for this lesson, so don't forget to take minutes, and to take the quiz here: https://www.engvid.com/professional-english-vocabulary-meetings/ TRANSCRIPT Hi. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. In today's video I want to talk to you about some business English, but more specifically, we're going to talk about meetings, business meetings and what goes on there, and some of the vocabulary you will need to know if you have to go to some of these meetings. Okay, we have a bunch of words here. I'm going to go through each one, make sure you understand what it is. So, every meeting has to have an "agenda". Actually I'll stand on this side a little bit. Every meeting has to have an agenda. What is an "agenda"? An agenda is basically the plan or the list of topics that need to be covered in this meeting. Right? So by the end of the meeting you have to cover these points, and then the meeting can break up or whatever. Okay? So that's the plan. We also use this for other situations, like somebody has an agenda, means somebody has a goal they're after. In a business meeting, the plan. The goal is to finish these lists... The list of priorities. At a meeting someone will be "designated" to take notes. Okay? So, "you designate" means you choose someone or you assign someone a specific task. Okay? So, every... Every meeting somebody else takes a turn or sometimes some big companies have one person whose job is to take those notes. Now, those notes are called "minutes", like the same minute... Like, you think about it in terms of time. "Minutes" are the notes or the summary of a meeting. Okay? At the end of the meeting the person who was designated to take the notes will go back to his or her desk, and type up a list of the main highlights of the meeting, and whatever goals were achieved, whatever items need to be discussed next meeting, etc. So, notes. Now, somebody might put forward a "motion". Okay? "Put forward a motion". A motion is basically the same idea as a proposal. Somebody says: "Okay, I think we need to do this. Let's vote on it." So anything that needs to be voted on is called a motion. Okay? Their idea, their plan, their suggestion, etc. After somebody puts forward the motion, everybody else in the meeting room will have "deliberations". Okay? They will deliberate on this motion. Basically they will discuss it. Everybody will say what they think, what they like, what they don't like. There'll be a general discussion about the motion, and that's called deliberations. Sometimes these deliberations involve a "conference call". A conference call is basically a call with people outside the meeting room, it could be on Skype, some sort of video program, it could be just a telephone call, but it's a speaker and everybody in the room can hear and be heard, and the person on the other end can be... Can hear and be heard as well. So it's a conference call. Then everybody will "brainstorm" to come up with new ideas. So, "brainstorming" is basically thinking, but thinking hard about a specific topic, and trying to come up with different ideas for that topic, how to do something, etc. Hopefully everybody in the room will "collaborate", people from different departments might come into a meeting to talk about a project or a product, or whatever, or a campaign. Everybody has to collaborate, everybody has to work together, that's what "collaborate" means. A good company will have people who like to collaborate, they'll like to work as a team; some companies it's a bit more difficult. Then after the deliberations, after the brainstorming, after all their talk, it's time to vote. Okay? So everybody will "cast a ballot". We also talk about this when we talk about politics. After the campaign for a political position, the public goes to cast a ballot. They go to the ballot box to vote. So, "cast a ballot", vote. Now, there are different ways to do it. There's a secret ballot. Okay? If you have a secret ballot, then everybody writes their answer, their choice on a piece of paper, puts it into a box, and then somebody collects them: "Yes", "No", whatever. There's an open ballot that everybody knows what everybody else is voting. This is called "a show of hands". "Show of hands, who's for the project? Who's against?" Okay, and then more hands this side, this side wins; more hands this side, this side wins. "Show of hands". In a classroom a teacher might use this: "Okay, does everybody understand? A show of hands. If you understand, put up your hand." Good. […]